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A&P II Exam 2

Epicardium Serous membrane layer outside or covering the surface of the heart
Myocardium Heart muscle
Parietal layer The outermost layer of the pericardial sac
Endocardium The inside lining of the heart
5. The pacemaker of the heart is the S-A Node
6. The ______ are found in the interventricular septum. ventricules
7. What is the name of the network found in the ventricular myocardium. fibrous skeleton of the heart
8. The point in the conduction system of the heart where the impulse is temporarily delayed is the. AV node
9. Which valve prevents backflow into the left ventricle. aortic semilunar valve
10. Which valve prevents backflow into the right atrium. tricuspid valve
11. Which valve prevents backflow into the left atrium. bicuspid (mitral)valve
Which valve prevent backflow into the right ventricle. pulmonary semilunar valve
12. Which valves prevent backflow into the ventricles. semilunar valves
13. Which AV valve has two flaps. bicuspid(mitral)
14. Which AV valve has three flaps. tricuspid valve
15. Normal heart sounds are caused by ____ Closing of valves
16. What is cardiac reserve and what circumstances can alter it? Cardiac reserve is the difference between resting and maximal CO
17. Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes what changes in blood pressure pumps blood against greater resistance
18. The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to: Pump blood with a greater pressure
19. Damage to the ________ is referred to as heart block. AV node
20. Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the: left atrium
21. Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the: papillary muscles
22. The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is: Angina pectoris
23. To auscultate the aortic semilunar valve, you would place your stethoscope: over the right sternal border & the 2nd intercostal space
24. Blood is carried to capillaries in the myocardium by way of: Coronary arteries
25. When the heart is beating at a rate of 75 times per minute, the duration of one cardiac cycle is _____ second(s). 60
26. List the factors which influence heart rate? age, gender, body temperature, chemicals, autonomic nervous system exercise
27. If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from: loss of oxygen in the heart, which causes heart attack
28. Cardiac muscle cells are like skeletal muscle cells in that they: straited
29. Cardiac output is about __ L/min. 5.25
30. What is the pericardial cavity? the space between the layers of the pericardium that contains fluid that lubricates the membrane surfaces and allows easy heart movement
31. If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells what would the result be? tetanic contractions; stop the heart’s pumping action
32. Norepinephrine acts on heart muscle cells by: Sympathetic stimulation releases norepinephrine and initiates a cyclic AMP second-messenger system
33. If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that: the HR would increase by about 25 beats/min
34. The stroke volume for a normal resting heart is ________ ml/beat. 70
35. Which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole? pulmonary trunk
36. Blood enters which vessels during ventricular systole? Aorta and pulmonary artery
37. When is the tricuspid valve is closed: the ventricle is in systole
38. When holding a dissected heart in your hands, it is easy to orient the right and left side by: noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls
39. Describe the function of myocardial cells compared to skeletal muscle cells. myocardial have long refractory periods and skeletal have short refractory periods
40. Describe the structure of the heart wall. T-wave, indicates repolarization
41. The deflection waves in an ECG tracing include the T wave, which indicates ventricular repolarization
42. Describe the events during the period of ventricular filling: pressure in the heart is low, blood returning from circ is flowing passively thru the atria & then open AV valves into ventricules
44. The heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle? Ventricular systole
45. Stenosis of the mitral valve may initially cause a pressure increase in the: blood pressure
48. Describe the factors which influence cardiac output. CO is the product of heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV)
50. Define isovolumetric contraction: for a split second, the ventricles are completely closed chambers and blood volume in the chambers remain constant
51. Define negative chronotropic factors Negative chronotropes decrease the heart rate.
52. The enlarged coronary vessel outside the heart that empties blood into the right atrium is the ________. vena cava
53. The ________ cells of the heart do not maintain stable resting membrane potentials; therefore, they continually depolarize. SN Node
54. Specialized conductive cells of the ventricles are called ________ fibers. purkinje
55. The ECG T wave interval represents ________. ventricular repolarization
56. CO = ________ × SV. HR
57. The __ membrane covers the heart. Pericardium
58. The ________ valve of the heart has three valves with chordae tendineae. atrioventricular
59. ________ valves of the heart have no chordae tendineae attached. semilunar
60. Define systole and diastole. Which heart chambers are usually referenced when these terms are used? Systole – contraction of heart muscle; Diastole – relaxation of heart muscle
61. Define the terms end diastolic volume (EDV) and end systolic volume (ESV) and relate them to the calculation of stroke volume. SV =(EDV) minus (ESV); EDV = amount of blood collected in a ventricle during diastole; ESV = amount of blood remaining in a ventricle after contraction
62. What is the difference between the auricles and the atrium? an auricle receives blood from the veins & forces it into a ventricle
64. What two important functions does the cardiac conduction system perform? controls heart rate and generates electrical impulses stimulating the heart to contract & pump blood
65. Explain autorhythmicity in cardiac muscle cells. Autorhythmic cells: Initiate action potentials; Have unstable resting potentials called pacemaker potentials; Use calcium influx (rather than sodium) for rising phase of the action potential
66. Why is oxygen so much more critical to the heart muscle than to skeletal muscles? When heart muscle is deprived of oxygen that is what is known as a heart attack
67. What is the functional importance of the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle? What is the functional importance of the fibrous skeleton of the heart? they allow for a quick transmission of the action potential so the entire chamber can contract as one unit and as site of attachment for muscles and supports structures for cardia valves
68. What is bradycardia? A heart rate less than 60 beats a minute
72. Which artery is the largest artery of the body; Aorta
73. Which artery supplies the kidneys. Renal artery
74. Which artery supplies the duodenum and stomach. gastroduodenal
75. Which artery supplies the distal areas of the large intestine. inferior mesenteric artery
76. Which artery supplies pelvic structures. gonadal arteries (ovarian or testicular)
77. Which artery does not anastomose. horizontal ventrical duodinum
78. Which artery gives rise to the right common carotid and right subclavian artery. brachiocephlic trunk
79. Which artery supplies the lower limbs. external iliac artery
80. Which artery is the common site to take the pulse. radial pulse
81. Which artery is the major supply to the cerebral hemispheres. middle cerebral arteries
82. Which artery is a large unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta. superior mesenteric artery
83. Abdominal aorta splits to form two ____________ arteries right and left illiac
84. Which vein receives blood from all areas superior to the diaphragm, except the heart wall. superior vena cava
85. Which vessel carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs. pulmonary arteries
86. Which vein drains the scalp. external juglar veins
87. Which vein runs through the armpit. brachial vein
89. Which artery is usually palpated to take the blood pressure. brachial artery
90. Which artery is the major artery of the thigh. femoral artery
91. Which artery supplies the small intestine. superior mesenteric artery
92. Which vessel carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs. pulmonary
93. Which vein is longest vein in the body, superficial. great saphenous vein
94. What is the site where resistance to blood flow is greatest. Arterioles
95. What is the site where exchanges of food and gases are made. Capillaries
96. What is the site where blood pressure is lowest. right atrium
97. What is the site where the velocity of blood flow is fastest. Large arteries
98. What is the site where the velocity of blood flow is slowest. Capillaries
99. What is the site where the blood volume is greatest. large veins
100. What is the site where the blood pressure is greatest. Large arteries
101. What is the site that is the major determinant of peripheral resistance. large arteries close to the small diameter arterioles
102. What are the three main factors influencing blood pressure? cardiac output, peripheral resistance, blood volume
103. List the chemicals that control blood pressure? ADH, Atrial natriuretic peptide, nitric oxide
104. Describe the structure and function of arteries? All carry blood away from the heart
105. Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium? Intima
106. Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of: Capillaries
107. The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called: hepatic portal system
108. The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the: muscular
109. Aldosterone will be released under what circumstances and have what specific effects Aldesterone will promote an increase in blood pressure
110. The pulse pressure is: systoilic pressure minus diastolic pressure
111. Describe the signs of hypovolemic shock. Which sign is a relatively late sign? results from large scale loss of blood, as might follow acute hemorrhage, severe vomiting or diarrhea, or extensive burns
112. Describe the circulatory events that are likely during vigorous exercise? capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged w/ blood, skin will be cold & clammy, blood will be rapidly diverted to the digestive organs
113. Continuous capillaries: (what are they and where are they found) are abundant in skin and skeletal muscles
114. Describe the structure and function of veins? venules join to form veins, usually have 3 distinct tunics, their walls are always thinner & their lumens larger than those of corresponding arteries
115. Venous anastomoses: (what are they and where do they occur) abundant occlusion of vein that rarely blocks blood flow or leads to tissue death
116. Peripheral resistance: (what is it and how does it change) increases as blood viscosity increases
120. Describe the types of circulatory shock? vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
121. Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation? media
122. The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is: significant b/c resistance is directly proportional to the blood vessel diameter. Peripheral resistance is greatest in capillaries which have the narrowest diameter
123. The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is: results from large-scale blood loss
124. In the dynamics of blood flow through capillaries, hydrostatic pressure: (what is it and what does it do): opposition to flow & measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through the vessels
125. Describe the role of the hepatic portal vein: directs blood from parts of the gastrointestinal tract to liver
126. What organs contain anastomosing vessels? heart
127. What factors influence arterial pulse rate? nervousness & type of physical activity, age, weight, health
128. List the structure that are involved directly in pulmonary circulation? Right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium
129. Histologically, which blood vessel layer is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer. tunica interna includes a layer of simple squamous epithelium
130. The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called: arterioles
131. Fenestrated capillaries (how do they function and where are they found) have windows that allows larger molecules in & out of capillaries
132. Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called: sinusoids
133. List the factors that aid venous return. activity of skeletal muscles, pressure changes in the thorax & venous valves
134. What blood pressure readings are indicative of hypertension? (age and systolic/diastolic ’s)
135. Describe the factors that influence blood pressure. strength of the heart beat, the elasticity of the arterial walls, the volume & viscousity of the blood, & a person’s health, age & physical condition
139. A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the: the 1st branches of the aorta of the coronary arteries, blocking them would cut supply to the heart
140. Cerebral blood flow is regulated by ______________ changes in blood pressure & in the blood viscousity alike
141. A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in what changes damage to the artery & the heart, brain and kidney
142. List the blood vessels attached to the circle of Willis? arteia, arterial blood vessel, & artery
143. Secondary hypertension can be caused by what factors arteriosclerosis
145. The first major branch of the aortic arch is the ________ branch. brachiocephalic
146. The most common form of shock is ___. hypovolemic
147. ________ is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors known and it is one of the endothelium-derived factors. endothelia
148. A ________ capillary has many oval holes in it. fenestrated
149. Arterial ________ provide alternate pathways for blood to get to an organ. systems
150. The ________ in the carotid sinuses and aortic arch detect increases in blood pressure. sinus receptors
154. The ________ supply the brain with blood. lungs supply oxygen to blood to the blood & blood is pumped to brain by heart
155. ________ pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. pulse
157. The lowest venous blood pressure is found in the ________. vena cava
158. As a cuff is deflated on the arm, sounds of ________ can be heard. vanish temporarily
159. Which type of blood vessels contain valves and what is their function? long and short saphenous veins
160. Describe the forces that determine fluid movements across capillary walls. diffusion
Vasoconstriction decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
Vasodilation widening of blood vessels due to relaxation of the muscular wall of the vessel
162. Consider the diameter of one 4-mm blood vessel and two 2-mm blood vessels. Would the two 2-mm vessels carry more, less, or the same amount of fluid, given that pressure is a constant? Why? 2mm vessel would contain half the blood of the 4 mm vessel
163. Based on what we have learned about the regulation of blood flow to various organs, do you think it is wiser to rest or exercise after a heavy meal? Explain your answer. if you’ve eaten a lot, then exercising after a meal is not a good idea, when you eat a significant protion blood is diverted to stoach and intestines less available for muscle
164. The average thickness of an arteriole is six times that of the average venule, why? arteriole has alumen diameter of 3mm. it has all 3 tunics, but its mostly smooth muscle, have cholinergic, alpha, beta
165. Why do the blood vessel colors appear backwards on the models of the heart and the lungs? in the rest of the body blood has oxygen, blood returning needs oxygen
166. The abdominal aorta divides into three arteries at its terminus, what are they? left gastric, the hepatic, and the splenic
170. Protein-containing fluid within lymphatic vessels is called lymph
171. List the lymphoid tissues that are part of MALT. Peyer’s patches, tonsils, and the appendix (digestive tract) Lymphoid nodules in the walls of the bronchi (respiratory tract)
172. What structure receives lymph from most of the body. thoracic duct
173. What are Peyer's patches and where are they found isolated clusters of lymphoid tissue, similar to tonsils; Found in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestine (Similar structures are found in the appendix)
174. List the functions of the spleen Site of lymphocyte proliferation; Immune surveillance and response; Cleanses the blood
175. What is the largest lymphatic organ. spleen
176. Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed: lymph nodes
177. List the lymphatic structures lymph nodes, lymph, lymph vessels, lymphatic ducts
178. The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called: Peyer’s patch
179. Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on: skeletal muscle contraction & differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
180. The thymus is most active during: most active during childhood
181. Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax? Right lymphatic duct
182. What effect does age have on the size of the thymus? gets smaller as person gets older
184. Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by: T-Lymphocites
185. Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________________ efferent vessels
186. By secreting hormones, the thymus causes what cells to become immunocompetent? T lymphocytes
187. When the lymphatics are blocked due to tumors, the result is: edema (lymphedema)
188. Describe lymph transport. The lymphatic system lacks an organ that acts as a pump; Vessels are low-pressure conduits; Uses the same methods as veins to propel lymph
189. Describe the two main types of lymphocytes. T cells and B cells protect the body against antigens
190. Describe the structure and function of lymphoid tissue. Diffuse lymphatic tissue – scattered reticular tissue elements in every body organ; Lymphatic follicles (nodules) – solid, spherical bodies consisting of tightly packed reticular elements and cells
191. A ring of lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n): palatine tonsils
192. Lymph collecting or pooling from the lower extremities would first pool in the ________ before moving on up. cisterna chyli
193. What is a bubo? the swelling of lymph nodes
194. What is the function of a Hassall's corpuscle? site of T Cell destruction in the Thymus
195. Particularly large clusters of lymph nodes occur in which locations in the body near the body surface in the inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions
196. List the digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissues Peyer’s patches, tonsils, and the appendix
197. Describe the functions of the lymphatic system Returns interstitial fluid and leaked plasma proteins back to the blood
198. The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the: Lingual tonsils
199. Describe the normal components of lymph watery substance and plasma proteins
200. The ________ are the simplest lymphoid organs and are found at the entrance to the pharynx. tonsils
201. The appendix, tonsils, and Peyer's patches are collectively called ________. MALT
202. Highly specialized lymph capillaries called ________ are present in the villi of the intestinal mucosa. lacteals
203. The thoracic duct of the lymphatic system empties into the ________. arises from the cisterna chyli and drains the rest of the body
204. Lymph nodes have more ________ lymphatic vessels than ________ lymphatic vessels. afferent; efferent
205. Of the organs in the lymphatic system, only the ________ becomes less important as you get older. thymus
206. Tonsils have blind-ended structures called ________. crypts
207. Hassall's corpuscles are always found in the lighter-colored ________ regions of the thymus. medullary
208. The ________ pulp of the spleen forms cuffs around the central arteries. white pulp
209. Lymphatic ________ are formed from the union of the largest collecting vessels. trunks
211. Describe the mechanisms by which lymphatic fluid is moved through the lymphatics. milking action of skeletal muscle, pressure changes in thorax, vavles to prevent back flow, and pulsations of nearby arteries
212. What is the consequence of obstruction of the lymphatics? lymphanitis
214. What is the special role of the thymus gland? it enables t-lymphocytes to function against specific pathogens in the immune system
Palatine tonsils – either side of the posterior end of the oral cavity
Lingual tonsils – lie at the base of the tongue
Pharyngeal tonsil – posterior wall of the nasopharynx
Tubal tonsils – surround the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx
217. In the thymus, what is the difference in the lymphocyte density of the cortex versus the medulla? The cortex contains densely packed lymphocytes and scattered macrophages; The medulla contains fewer lymphocytes and thymic (Hassall’s) corpuscles
218. Contrast the structure of blood and lymph capillaries. Similar to blood capillaries, with modifications; Remarkably permeable; Loosely joined endothelial minivalves; Withstand interstitial pressure and remain open
220. How does the structure of a lymph node allow lymphocytes and macrophages to perform their protective function? Macrophages reside on these fibers and phagocytize foreign matter
221. Explain the term MALT. What is its function? MALT – mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue; MALT protects the digestive and respiratory systems from foreign matter
47. If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells so that sodium influx is more rapid what would happen? threshold is reached more quickly, and heart rate increases
117. Describe brain blood flow autoregulation: brain tissue is extremely sensitive to declines in pH, and increase CO2 causes marked vasodilation
118. Blood flow to the skin: (how does it change and under what circumstances) blood flows to the venus plexus under the surface; changes with temp
119. Describe the movement of materials at the capillary level. 1 diffusion thru membrane 2 throughout intercellular clefts 3 thru fenestrations 4 Via vesicles or caveolae
137. Describe changes in the velocity of blood flow throughout the circulatory system. How does velocity relate to vessel diameter? changes as it travels through systemic circulation its inversely proportional to the cross section area
Circulatory shock – any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally
Hypovolemic shock – results from large-scale blood loss
Vascular shock – poor circulation resulting from extreme vasodilation
Cardiogenic shock – the heart cannot sustain adequate circulation
Created by: Brison