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MidTerm Study Guide

Upper Airway 1) Nose and mouth (2) Pharynx (3) Epiglottis (4) Larynx
Lower Airway 1)Trachea (2) Bronchi and Bronchioles (3) Lungs (4) the Diaphragm
During Inhalation The diaphragm and the intercostal muscles, contract...the diaphragm moves slightly downward and flares the lower portion of the rib cage outward.
During Exhalation The diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax... moving the diaphragm upward and the ribs and sternum downward and inward back to their normal resting positions.
Pulse Oximeter Device used to measure the level of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen.
SAMPLE History a medical history of the patient that you gather by asking questions of the patient, family, and bystanders.
SAMPLE (S) Signs and Symptoms (A) Allergies (M) Medications (P) Pertinent past history (L) Last oral Intake (E) Events leading to the injury or illness
OPQRST (O) Onset = What were you doing (P) Provacation/Palliation=does anything make it worse (Q) Quality = describe the pain (R) Radiation = does the pain move anywhere (S) Severity = scale from 1-10 how bad does it hurt (T) Time = how long has it been going on
Normal Pulse Rates Over 75 = 90 BPM; Adult = 60-80 BPM; Adolescent = 60-105 BPM; Child (5-12 years) = 60-120 BPM; Child (1-5) = 80-150 BPM; Infant = 120 - 150 BPM;
Normal Breathing Rates Adults = 12-20 per min; Children = 15-30 per min; Infants = 25-50 per min; Newborns = 30-60 per min;
Voluntary Muscle (Skeletal) Muscle that can be controled and contracted and relaxed by the will of the individual. (ex. Swallowing, smiling, chewing)
Involuntary Muscle (Smooth) Automatic muscular functions of the body. (ex. moves blood through the veins)
Systolic Blood Pressure Top number..... it is the amount of pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries during the contraction and ejection of blood from the left ventricle.
Diastolic Blood Pressure Bottom number... it is the amount of pressure on the artery walls while the ventricle is at rest and not contracting.
Repeater a device that receives transmissions from a relatively low powered source such as a mobile or portable radio and rebroadcast them at another frequency and a higher power.
Right Upper Quadrant 1) Liver (2) Right Kidney (3) Colon (4) Pancreas (5) Gallbladder
Left Upper Quadrant 1) Liver (2) Spleen (3) Left Kidney (4) Stomach (5) colon (6) Pancras
Right Lower Quadrant 1) colon (2) small intestines (3) major artery and vein to the right leg (4) Ureter (5) Appendix
Left Lower Quadrant 1) Colon (2) Small intestines (3) major artery and vein to the left leg (4) ureter
Red Blood Cells carries oxygen to the body cells, and carry carbon dioxide away from the cells.
White Blood Cells defends against infection
Platelets creates blood clots, necessary to stop bleeding.
Plasma carries blood cells and transports nutrients to all tissues. Also it transports waste products to organs where they can be excreted from the body.
Activated Charcoal Dosage 1 gram per kilogram
Activated Charcoal Side Effects Blackening of the stools, possible vomiting
Activated Charcoal Medication Form 12.5 grams premixed in water
Activated Charcoal Indications Patients who have ingested poisons by mouth(administer after receiving orders from medical direction or the poison control
Activated Charcoal Contraindications 1)altered mental status (not fully conscious) (2) swallowed acids or alkalis (3) unable to swallow
Activated Charcoal Actions binds with poisons in the stomach and prevents their absorption into the body
Activated Charcoal Medication Name Activated charcoal, super char, instachar, actidose, liquichar.
Activated Charcoal Route Oral
Aspirin Dosage 160-325 mg
Aspirin Medication Form Tablet
Aspirin Indications Chest discomfort that is suggestive of a heart attack and approval from medical direction
Aspirin Contraindications patient with a known allergy to the drug
Aspirin Side Effects Patients may report stomach irritation or heartburn, nausea, or vomiting
Aspirin Actions Decreases the ability of platelets to clump together... this reduces the formation of additional clots of the site of the coronary artery blockage
Aspirin Medication Name ASA, Bayer, Ecotrin, St. Josephs, Bufferin.
Aspirin Route Oral
Epinephrine Dosage Adult = 0.3 mg____ Infant and child = 0.15 mg
Epinephrine Medical Form Liquid drug contained within an auto-injector
Epinephrine Indications 1) signs and symptoms of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) (2) medication is prescribed to the patient (3) EMT has received an order from medical direction
Epinephrine Contraindications none, when used in the life-threatening allergic reaction
Epinephrine Actions Mimics the response of the sympathetic nervous system: 1) constricts blood vessels to improve the blood pressure. (2) relaxes smooth muscles in the lungs to improve breathing. (3) stimulates the heartbeat. (4) reverses swelling and hives
Epinephrine Side Effects Increased heart rate, pale skin (pallor), dizziness, chest pain, head ache, nausea and vomiting, excitability and anxiousness
Epinephrine Route Injection
Epinephrine Medication Name Epinephrine, Adrenalin, EpiPen, Epipen Jr.
Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) Dosage Each depression of the MDI delivers a precise dose. The number of times the medication can be delivered is determined by medical direction.
Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) Medication Form Aerosolized medication in a metered dose inhaler
Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) Indications 1)exhibits sign and symptoms of breathing difficulty (2) patient has a physician-prescribed MDI (3) EMT has received medical direction approval
Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) Contraindications 1) Patient is not responsice, enough to use the MDI (2) MDI is not Prescribed for the patient (3) maximum dose allowed is reached prior to your arrival (4) permission denied by medical direction
Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) Actions Bete agonist, relaxes the bronchile smooth muscles, dilates the lower airway
Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) Side Effects tachycardia, tremors, shakiness, nervousness, dry mouth
Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) Route Inhalation
Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) Medication Name Albuterol, Metaprotereuol, isoetharine, proventil, ventolin, metaprel, alupent, bronkasol, bronkometer
Nitroglycerin Dosage One tablet or spray under the tongue... may be repeated 3 times 5 minutes apart.. 0.4 mg per tablet or spray
Nitroglycerin Medication Form Tablet or sublingual spray
Nitroglycerin Indications 1) patient exhibits signs and symptoms of chest pain. (2) patient has physician-prescribed nitroglycerin. (3) EMT has approval from medical direction
Nitroglycerin Contraindications 1)baseline blood pressure below 100 mmHg systolic (2) suspected head injury. (3) patient is a child or infant (4) three doses have already been taken
Nitroglycerin Actions Relaxes blood vessels, decreases workload of the heart
Nitroglycerin Side Effects Vessel dilation may cause headache, drop in blood pressure, pulse rate changes
Nitroglycerin Route sublingual
Nitroglycerin Medication Name Nitroglycerin, Nitrostat, Nitrobid, Nitrolingual spray
Oral Glucose Dosage Typical dose in one tube
Oral Glucose Medication Form Gel, in a toothpaste-type tube
Oral Glucose Indications 1)altered mental status with history of diabetes controlled by medication and ability to swallow the medication
Oral Glucose Contraindications 1)unconscious (2) unable to swallow the medication
Oral Glucose Actions Increases blood and brain sugar levels
Oral Glucose Side Effects May cause an airway obstruction in the patient without a gag reflex
Oral Glucose Route oral
Oral Glucose Medication Name oral glucose, glutose, insta-glucose
Medications carried on the Ambulance 1) Oxygen (2) Oral Glucose (3) Activated Charcoal (4) Aspirin
Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale 1) Facial Droop (2) Arm Drift (3) Abnormal Speech
5 Seizure Stages 1) Aura (2) Loss of consciousness (3) Tonic Phase (4) Hypertonic Phase (5) Clonic Phase (6) Postictal state
Aura Serves as a warning that a seizure is going to begin and involves some type of sensory perception by the patient
Loss of consciousness the patient will lose consciousness sometime after the aura
Tonic Phase (muscle rigidity) the patients muscles become contracted and tense, and the patient exhibits extreme muscular rigidity with arching of the back
Hypertonic Phase the patient has extreme muscular rigidity with hyper extension of the back
Clonic Phase (conculsion) Muscle spasms then alternate with relaxation, producing the typical violent and jerky seizure activity of the clonic phase
Postictal state this is the recovery phase. the patients mental status is altered and may range from complete unresponsiveness to confusion and disorientation
Hydrostatic the blood pressure or force exerted against the inside of vessel walls
Hypercarbia increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood
Hyperglycemia high blood sugar. A blood glucose level greater than 120 mg/dl
Hyperthermia abnormally high core body temperature. Body temperature above the normal 98.6 degrees F
Hypoglycemia Low blood sugar. A blood glucose level of 60 mg/dl with signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia or a blood glucose level of less than 50 mg/ dl with or without signs and symptoms of hyopglycemia
Hypoperfusion the in sufficient delivery of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the bodys cells and inadequate elimination of carbon dioxide and other wastes that results from inadequate circulation of blood... also called shock.
Hypopnea inadequate tidal volume in a breathing patient
Hypothermia abnormally low core body temperature... cor body temperature under 95 degrees F
Medication Administration Five Rights 1) Right Patient (2) Right medication (3) Right Route (4) Right Dose (5) Right Date
Therapeutic Effect the intended positive response by the body
Mechanism of Action is how the drug works to create its effect on the body
Side Effects Actions that are not desired and that occur in addition to the desired and that occur in addition to the desired therapeutic effects.
C.A.B.C. (C) C-spine (A) Airway (B) Breathing (C) Circulation
A.V.P.U. (A) Alert (V) Responds to verbal (P) Responds to pain (U) Unresponsive
Newborn Assessment (A.P.G.A.R.) (A) Appearance (P) Pulse (G) Grimance (A) Activity (R) Respirations
Power Grip Recommended gripping technique. the palm and fingers come in complete contact with the object and all fingers are bent at the same angle.
Types of Moves Emergency Move, Urgent Move, Non Urgent moves.
Emergency Moves 1)Armpt-forearm drag, (2) The Shirt drag, (3) Blanket drag
Non-Urgent Moves 1)Direct ground lift, (2) Extremity Left, (3) Direct Carry, (4) Draw sheet method
Ways Poisons enter the body 1) Ingestion, (2) Inhalation, (3) Injection, (4) Absorption
Psychiatric Problems Anxiety, Phobias, Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Paranoia, Schizophrenia
Anxiety a state of painful uneasiness about impending problems. it is characterized by agitation and restlessness and is one of the most common emotions.
Phobias are closely related to anxiety problems.. they are irrational fears of specific things, places, or situations.
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions. It is a condition characterized by deep feelings of sadness, worhlessnessm and discouragement, feelings that often do not seem connected to the actual circumstances of the patients life.
Bipolar Disorder Also known as manic-depressive disorder. It causes a patient to swing to opposite sides of the mood spectrum.
Paranoia a highly exaggerated or unwarranted mistrust or suspiciousness.
Schizophrenia Suffer debilitating distortions of speech and thought, bizarre delusions, hallucinations, social withdrawl, and lack of emotional expressiveness.
Suicide any willful act designed to end ones own life. (males are 4 times more likely to die from suicide, but women make three times as many attempts.
4 most common methods of Suicide 1)self-inflicted gunshot wound (2) hanging (3) poisoning by ingestion (4) Carbon monoxide poisoning
Trauma Patient Assessment 1) Scene size-up, (2) initial assessment, (3) Focused History and Physical Exam, (4) Detailed Physical Exam (5) Ongoing Assessment
Medical Patient Assessment 1) Scene size-up, (2) initial assessment, (3) Focused History and Physical Exam, (4) Ongoing Assessment
Created by: LivLogik