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Joe's Anth Test

Archaeology Investigation of the culture, demography, and history of past populations through their material and biological remains.
Biological/Physical Anthropology Investigation of the evolution, adaptations, genetics, and biological variation of humans and primates.
Linguistic Exploration of the nature, development and evolution of human language, as well as the cataloging and documenting of the thousands of languages spoken around the world.
Cultural cultural variation and how culture influences meaning, perception, politics, history, and all other things human.
Defining elements of Culture Information that is shared among a population Information that is socially transmitted
Social Evolution is a subdiscipline of evolutionary biology that is concerned with social behaviours, i.e. those that have fitness consequences for individuals other than the actor.
Mutually beneficial behaviour that increases the direct fitness of both the actor and the recipient
Selfish a behaviour that increases the direct fitness of the actor, but the recipient suffers a loss
Altruistic a behaviour that increases the direct fitness of the recipient, but the actor suffers a loss
Spiteful a behaviour that decreases the direct fitness of both the actor and the recipient
Historical Particularism The anthropological theory that emphasizes the specific details of a culture and its history, as well as the importance of cultural relativism.
Cultural Relativism The consideration of behavior, beliefs, and customs within the context of the particular culture from which they are derived.
Structural Functionalism Societies were seen as working systems that were logical on their own terms. History less important to them than to historical particularists. These systems needed to be understood on their own terms as they existed in the present.
Definition of Evolution Evolution is the change in the frequency of particular genetic variants in a population over time.
Four Mechanisms of Evolution Mutation Gene Flow Genetic Drift Natural Selection
Four subfields of Anthropology Archaeology Biological/Physical Anthropology Linguistic Cultural
Mutation Most common in evolution
Gene Flow Introduction to a new gene
Genetic Drift Random, due to chance alone
Natural Selection only one capable of increasing adaptive complexity
Three points to Theory of Natural Selection There exists variation in the population This variation is heritable Some traits will allow individuals to be more successful reproducers than others, and these traits are passed on in greater numbers to subsequent generations.
Four pieces of evidence for Common Ancestry Common Ancestry Homology Genetic Similarity Embryology
Common Ancestry . Transitional or “Missing Link” fossils such as australopithecus africanus, ambulocetus (whale), tiktaalic
Homology any similarity between characteristics of organisms that is due to their shared ancestry.
Genetic Similarity the more related, the stronger degree of heat needed to separate bonded DNA strands
Embryology Study of formation of embryos. Birds develop fingers as embryos then lose them before being hatched. Humans Develope tails then lose them as well.
Naturalistic Fallacy described and named by British philosopher G. E. Moore in his 1903 book Principia Ethica was committed whenever a philosopher attempts to prove a claim about ethics by appealing to a definition of the term "good" in terms of one or more natural properties
Participant Observation gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment
Emic (thick) internal, culurally relevant... Explanation accompanied by a comprehensive description of cultural context that makes the phenomenon meaningful to the reader.
Etic No explanation accompanied, just stating what happened and leaving it open to interpretation.
Anthropometry the measurement of the human individual for the purposes of understanding human physical variation.
Demography of population change....mortality and death too
Observation Focal Follows – following a member of the society around and writing down what they do
Economic games take some aspect of behaviour that is context-specific and examine how the interplay of private versus social factors affect the decisions we make.
Major reasons humans can’t be divided into races There is not much genetic variation between populations There are no well-defined divisions between groups Much Greater Genetic Variance Within Rather than Between Groups
Race A taxonomic level below species, sometimes synonymous with subspecies. Classification of inbreeding populations separated from other populations by barriers for extended period of time with very little gene flow
Ethnicity member to a particular cultural heritage Individuals tend to maintain the cultural identity of their genetic ancestors
foraging (hunting and gathering) Original subsistence strategy Complete or near-complete reliance on hunted, fished or gathered foods Historically present around globe
Equality-Egalitarian People shared food they had when had excess in order to receive the same benefit when they had less food. (widespread food sharing)
Well known foraging groups !kung, vasekela, Gwi, kua, !xo, kwe, //Ganaa, Aka, Baka, Mbuti, Twa, Efe, Agta, At, Ache (4 different bands of Ache)
Ache are notorious for food sharing, had little or no clothing or protection against elements or insects.
horticulture Small-scale, mainly subsistence-level farming Growing crops to feed their family and having animals such as chickens and pigs. Pigs help clean by eating garbage Often supplemented with domesticated animals, hunting, fishing & gathering
Fertile crescent where growing gardens originated. Fertiled by Nile River, grew wheat and barley.
Slash & burn(Swidden) Ensure desired plants can thrive. Eliminates competitors and adds natural fertilizer which leads to longer soil life. Must be a controlled burn, Able to plant plants with different maturity (harvest) times.
Social impact of agricultural revolution Increased sedintism (settling down). Increased population densities and ownerships and greather social complexity too.
Yanomamo They are the largest horticulturalist society and are located in venezuela and northern Brazil and number in about 20,000 to 30,000 people. They rely on plantanes. They take haluccanagenic drugs to tap into “inner spirits”.
Samoans are located in the tiny islands below Hawaii.consist of multiple extended families called “Aiga”, have communities headed by chief and numerous sub-chiefs. Each Aiga is headed by a head man called maita.They eat taro, breadfruit, banana’s, and coconuts
Tsimane are located in Bolivia and lived in houses) along rivers and small creeks. They grew rice, plantanes, and drank something called Chiche(made from beehives) which has alcohol and tastes like cheerios. They fished, hunted deer, boars, and armadillos
pastoralism Subsistence strategy based on tending herds of large animals. Happened mainly in south Africa, north Africa (around sahara), Saudi Arabia, Central Asia, and Siberia.
Ecological characteristics of pastoralists habitats Semi-arid habitats High seasonality or risk of drought/floods Not conducive to horticulture/agriculture
Traits desired in pastoral animals Hardy Not extreme specialists Herdable Breedable and capable of enforcing artificial selection Alternative uses (wool, milk, pack animals, riding)
Nomadic pastoralism People are self-reliant, dependent on animals, and mobile (look for water).
Transhumance pastoralism They have permanent settlements and also rely on horticulture.
The Nuer used urine as a sterilizer since it cleans dirt and oil. Also used dung to burn for fuel, building material, and fertilizer
Cowboys were pasotralists and had to defend land from raiders and cattle thieves.
Consanguineal kin An individual related by common descent from the same individual; a blood relative.
Affinal kin Persons related by marriage
Kin selection arrange marriages but polygamy is not uncommon
Coefficient of relatedness the percentage of genes that those two individuals share by common descent
Incest avoidance some animals use olfaction (smell) Westermarck Effect: aversion to romance with those one grows up with Also language and culture and records
Fictive kin (aka relatedness) The process of giving someone a kinship title and treating them in many ways as if they had the actual kinship relationship implied by the title.
The Avunculate Relationship between children and maternal uncle In matrilineal populations, maternal uncle is closest “father” figure in lineage.
Descent schemes Matrilineal Patrilineal Bilineal
Matrilineal A system in which lineage is traced through the mother and maternal ancestors
Patrilineal Patrilineality (a.k.a. agnatic kinship) is a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage (most non-foragers)
Bilineal Descent tranced through both parents’ lines (most foragers)
Created by: amaldonado5