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Psychology CLEP

Psychology exam CLEP at SIUE

Functionalism William James-Sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic manner.
Structuralism 1st school of psychology and focused on breaking down mental processes into basic components. Influenced experimental psychology
William Wundt 1st psychology lab in Germany. His school of thought was structuralism
Psychoanalysis Developed by Sigmund Freud, devotes to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior. (unconcious)
Behaviorism Approach to psychology that empahsizes observable measurable behavior. (learning perspective)
Humanism Focused on each individual's potential and stressed the importance of growth and self-actualization. (Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers)
Hierarcy Of Needs 1) Physiological-water, air, food and sleep2) Security-safety3)Social Needs-love and affection4) Esteem Needs-Self worth5) Self Actualization-personal growth (highest level)
Cognitivism Branch of psychology that studies the mental process
Neurons Specialized cells that are information processing units of the brain responsible for receiving and transmitting info.
Dendrites Tree-like extensions at the beginning of the neuron that help increase the surface area of the body and are covered with synapses. They receive info from other neurons and transmit electrical stimulation
Axon Hillock Located at the end of the soma and controls the firing of the neuron.
Axon Elongated fiber that extends from the cell body to the terminal endings and transmit the neural signal. Some are covered with a fatty substance called myelin.
Terminal buttons Located at the end of the neuron. Responsible for sending signal to other neurons.
Synapse Gap at the end of terminal buttons
Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Autonomic-regulates internal environment. Carries info from CNS to smooth muscle glands.Somatic-Carries info to CNS from the senses and from teh CNS to skeletal muscles
Medulla (hind brain) Sensory and motor nerves cross over
Pons (hindbrain) Regulation of sleep-wake cycle
Cerebellum (hindbrain) Reflexes (balance) coordinates movement
Midbrain Hearing, vision, relay point pain registered
Thalamus (forebrain) Major messages relay center. Regulates higher brain centers and PNS
Hypothalamus (forebrain) Motivation, emotion and stress reactions
Occipital Lobe (Cerebral Hemispheres) Receives and processes visual info.
Temporal Lobe Complex vision, hearing, smell, balance, emotions some language comprehension
Parietal Lobe Sensory projection, visual and spatial abilities
Frontal Lobe Goal directed behavior, concentration, motor projection, coordinate messages from other lobes
Hemispheric Specialization Right-nonverbal and spacial tasks-controls left side of bodyLeft-Verbal tasks, controls right side of body
Reticular Formation Network of nuerons running through the hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain that serve to arouse the higher parts of the brain.
Limbic System Ring of structures that work together to play an essential role in the formation of new membraines and influence emotion.
Spinal Cord Complex cable of nerves that connects the brin to most of the rest of the body. Long nerves fibers have 2 basic functions:1)permit some reflect movement2) carry messages to brain
Endocrine Systems Communication system in body made up of endocrine glands that produce hormones, chemical substances and guide processes such as metabolism, growth and sexual development.
5 Stages of Personality Development (Freud) 1) Oral Dependency-Birth thru 2 years2) Anal-potty training 3) Phallic Stage-Ages 3-5 (Oedipus=males love for mom and Electra=female love for dad)4) Latency-not much new development5) Genital-age 12 thru puberty (sexual interest)
Thyroid Gland Secretes Thyroxin, doxy and sluggish
Parathyroid pea sized responds to exposure of light
Nature vs. Nurture Interactive role of hereditary (nature) and environment (nuture)
Pineal Gland Controls level of sugar
Pituatary Gland Produces largest number of different hormones (master gland)
Gonads Testes in a male, ovaries in female
Adrenal Glands located above kidneys-outher covering is adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla is the inner core
Evolution 1859 Charles Darwin-organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive
Evolutionary Pyschology Analyzes human thoughts, traits and behaviors by examining their adaptive values
Sensations Passive process of bringing information from the outside world into the body and brain.
Perception Active process of selecting, organizing and interpreting information brought to the brain by senses.
Signal Detection Theory Decision making process as well as sensory processNoise-how much oustide interference existsCriterion-level of assurance that you decide must be met before you take action
Visual System Wave length-frequency of wave-longer a wave the less often quickly it occurs.Wave amplitude-size of the wave affects brightness
Cornea round transparent area allows light to pass thru eye
Lens Transparent structure that focuses onto retina
Retina inner membrane receives information about light using rods and cones
Pupil Opening at the center of the iris which controls the amount of light
Rods Night vision
Cones Day vision
Trichoromatic 3 types of color red, green, blue
Opponent Process Theory Color preception depends on the reception of the antagonist colors. One color at a time the opponent color blocked out. Pairs-red-green, blue-yellow, black-white
Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization Figure Ground-organize visual perceptionSimplicity-good form, grouping elements to make good formProximity-nearness, objects that are close often perceived at belonging togetherSimiliarity-sameContinuity-follow whatever direction we are led
Illusions Incorrect perception caused by distortion of visual sensations. Reversible figures-two faces looking towards each other and also a vase image.Impossible figures-2-D cannot exist in 3D space despite our perception
Perception of Pain 2 separate pathways1)fast-registeres localized pain (sharp) cutitng with a knife2) slow pathways-sends infor to limbic system (aching/burning) 1-2 secons longer than fast pathways
Gates Control Theory (Melzack & Walls) Incoming pain must pass thru "gate" which is a nueral network controlled by brain to determine where the info should be sent
Phantom Limbs Ability to feel pain, pressure, other sensations in limbs that are not there (either amputated or born without)
Hypnosis Hypersuggestible or easily influenced. Can be described as imagined involvement
Meditation Calming and focusing the mind, highly developed in Eastern cultures such as India and Japan
Psychoactive Drugs Affects states of consciousness-addictive, alter brain chemistry and depends on dosage
Lucid Dream Realize you're dreaming remain asleep and capable to experiment in the dream
Learning Theory Process leading to relatively permanent behavior change or potential change. John B. Watson-As we learn we alter the way we perceive our environment, the way we interpret stimuli and therefore, the way we act or behave.
B. F. Skinner Skinner was a well known behaviorist who followed Watson's research (1904-1990)
Behavioral Psychology Interested in how behavior results from the stimuli both in environment and within ourselves
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov-Unconditioned Stimulus (UCR) and Unconditioned Response (UCR) Ex: Meat powder naturally causes salivation in dogs.Bell-conditioned stimulus; and salivation conditioned response
Operant Conditioning How an organism results/operates in the environment. Ex: Cat in box with only one way first tries to get out different ways, once it relizes the best way out, if put back in the box, continues to take the same course of action right away
Reinforcment Postive-w/ dog a treat for sitting or doing trick (powerful)Negative-nagging to get teen to take out trash, nagging stops after teen does chore on own.Punishment-something aversive to decrease behavior Ex: spanking for misbehaving.
Fixed Ratio Schedule that refers to applying reinforcement after specific number of behaviors.
Fixed Interval Applying reinforcer after specific amount of time. Getting a raise every year and not in between
Variable Ratio Applying reinforcer after a variable number of responses. Ex: Gambling on slot machine
Variable Interval Boss that checks on work periodically, one will work harder because you know when the next check comes.
6 Steps to Scientific Method ID questions of interest; develop a testable hypothesis; select research method; analyze data (publish); build theory
Positive Correlation 2 variables more into the same direction, increase and/or decrease together
Serial Position Effect Remembering info in the beginning and end but not so much in the middle
Control Group Group that is treated identically to the experimental group but does not receive the independent variable.
Negative Correlation Two variables move in opposite directions one factor increases while the other decreases
Humanistic Perspective Hamn nature is naturally positive and growth seeking
Cognitive Perspective Thoughts, perception and info processing
Descriptive/Correlational Methodology Simply observe variables
Motivated Theory of forgetting we forget for a reason
Neuroscience/biopsychology perspective Genetics and biological processes in the brain and nervous system
Experimental Group The Group that recieves independent variable (manipulated by expermientor)
Chunking Memory-grouping separate pieces into single unit. Ex: CHess pieces into patterns that can easily be recalled.
Sample Bias Occurs when research participant are not represented of the larger population
Shallow level of process We are only aware of basic incoming info, you obtain names o students and repeat over and over.
Maintenance Rehearsal Repeating info to obtain and maintain in short term memory
Sensory Memory 1st stage of memory that holds sensory info
Experimentor Bias Occurs when researcher influences research results in expected direction
Pscyhoandytic Perspective Unconscious conflict
Elaborative Rehearsal storage in longer term memory in which info is actively reviewed and related to old info
4 Goals of Psychology Desription, explanation, prediction, change
The Focus of psychological scicen is the attempt to relate overt responses to observable environment stimuli." This statement is most closely associated with what method? Behavioral
Which type of research design is most appropriate for establishing a cause and affect relationship between two variables? Experimental
Response latency is the number of seconds elapses between the stimuls and the response. Operational Definition
The release of a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft is caused by An action potential
A neuron is said to be polarized when... it is in a resting state
Down syndrome is caused by an extra chromosome
How many pairs of chromosones are contained in most human cells? 23
Damge to an individual's parietal lobe would most likely result in... reduced sensitvity to touch
In adults, total sensory deprivation for long periods produces... Hallucinations and impaired efficiency in all areas of intellectual functioning
Opponent Process Theory Color afterimages
The receptors for hearing are the hair cells on the basilar membrane
Brain waves during REM slepp generaly appear Rapid low amplitude waves
Sleep pattern which is less prevelant in adults REM
Hypnosis is most used for Pain control
Variable ratio only Checking coin return every time one passes by a vending machine
Operant Conditioning Making the amount of time a child can spend on playing video games contingent on the amount of time the child spends practicing the piano.
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov conditioned/unconditioned responses and stimulus
Reinforcer Ex: Teacher tells a child to sit down in class, over the course of several days the child is standing more and more frequently, only to be told to sit down each time.
Secondary Reinforcer Money
Stimulus Generalization Ex: Shortly after learning to associate the word "dog" with certain four legged furry animals, young children will frequently misidentify a cow or a horse as a dog.
Retroactive Behavior Learned by lateral inferences
Serial Position Affect Ex: If on the last day of psychology class a student is asked to remember what was done in class each day. Most likely only going to be able to remember the beginning and the end. Nothing in the middle
Proactive Interference Old memories inhibit new memories
Positive Transfer Rapid learning in a new situation
Context Research has shown that students generally perform better if tested in the same room where they did their learning.
Forgetting curve It decreases rapidly at first then levels off.
Information Processing Theory Sensory Memory; Short Term Memory; then Long Term Memory
Algorithm Always guarantee a solution in problem solving
Heuristic Set of Rules to increase the chances of solving a problem
Convergent Thinking usually deductive, thinking in which ideas are examined for their logical validity or in which a set of rules is followed, e.g. in arithmetic
One theory of the effects of arousal holds that efficiency of behavior can be described as an inverted U-Shape function of increasing arousal. Low and high levels of arousal lead to poorest performance
Reduction Example: A woman who is cold puts on a coat
Approach-Avoidance Conflict Both levels of attraction and aversion increase.
Preoperational Thought Ex: Young child breaks her cookie into a number of pieces and asserts that "now there is more to eat". Jean Piaget
Elisabeth Kubler Ross Stages of dealing with death Denial; Anger; Bargaining; Depression; Acceptance
When preschool children see the world only from their point of view, they are displaying... Egocentric Thinking
Deductive Reasoning reasoning that constructs or evaluates deductive arguments.
Displacement Ex: When insulted by a friend Sally's first impulse was to strike him. Instead, she yelled loudly and kicked a door.
Sublimation Sublimation is the refocusing of psychic energy (which Sigmund Freud believed was limited) away from negative outlets to more positive outlets.
Collective unconscious Carl Jung
Unstable-Introverted Ex: Lawrence is pessimistic, rigid, and moody. Hans Eysenck
The key distinction between personality trait and attitude is... durability
A diagnosis of schizophrenia typically includes Delusions
Etiology Refers to origins and causes of an aspect of illness.
Obsession Sensless ritual
Somatization Disorder characterized chiefly by physical complaints
Personality disorders are characterized by Problematic social relationships and inflexible and maladaptive responses to stress
Significant side effects of electorconvulsive therapy temporary loss of memory
SSRI's Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are treatments for Depression
Friendship Formation Similarity, Proximity, and familiarity
Altruism quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others
Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy has indicated... Certain theraputic methods have been shown to be especially effective for particular psychological disorders
Cognitive Therapy Attempts to correct irrational beliefs that lead to psychological distress
Bystander Effect Diffusion of Responsibility
Robert Sternberg's love theory Intimacy, Passion and Committment
Job satisfaction has an adverse relatioship with... turnover
An attribution that focuses on an individual's ability or personality characteristic is described as dispositional
Foot in the door small request to gain listeners' compliance then making a larger request
Distribution with the greatest variability standard deviation of 11.2
Positron emission tomorgraphy (PET) studying brain activity
Generalization EX: A father uses operant conditioning to encourage his child to share. Now she is sharing more and more.
The measure of central tendency can be easily distorted by unusually high or low scores Mean
Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus will result in an increase in eating disorder
Temperament classification Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas-Easy, difficult, slow to warm up
Systematic Desensitization treatment technique often used to treat phobias, builds upon prinicples of classical conditioning
Created by: stacme2



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