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biology ch 3

The cell

Robert Hooke discovered the plant cell
Schleiden & Schwann discovered all living things are composed of cells
Rudolf Virckow cell theory, cells only arise from other cells
All life can be described by the _______ activities of a cell
Loss of cellular homeostasis underlies nearly every disease
cell diameter ranges in size from 2mm-10cm
Largest visible cell ostrich egg cell
How large are human cells 10 mm-100 mm
The largest human cell is the human egg
cell length varies from a few mm to 1 meter
Skeletel muscle cells are how long? 30 cm
spinal cord nerve cells are how long? 1 meter
what shape are red blood cells disk shaped
Neurons take on what shape tree branches
fat cells are what shape? spherical
muscles sells are what shape? long and skinny spindle shaped
what are the 3 parts of the generalized cell nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma lemma
plasma lemma cell membrane
How think is the plasma membrane 7-8 nm thin
what is the makeup of a cell membrane? dbl layer of phospholipid with protein molecules dispersed throughout.
1 molecule of glucose makes up 38 atp
what 3 functions do proteins serve within a cell signs of recognition by immune systme, recptors for hormones and enzymes, transport nutrients across membranes
hydrophilic water loving
hydrophobic avoids water
all biological membranes are dbl layer phospholipid with proteins
external lipid molecules attach glycolipids
glycolipid sugar group
cell membrane containes a significant amount of _____ to help stabalize. cholesterol
membrane proteins are______ in order to interact with non polar parts and water inside and out hydrophobic and hydrophilic,
Integral proteins are transmembran proteins that protrude through the lipid bilayer
what is the primary function of integral proteins? transport, form channels or pores or act as carriers
Peripheral proteins are not inbedded in the lipid layer, attahed to integral proteins
mitochondria have their own seperate DNA, recieved from the mother
some peripheral proteins are enzymes
Peripharel proteins can _____ during cell division change shape (dontraction of muscle cells
glycoproteins/sugar group are attached to peripheral proteins
microvilli finger-like projections of plasma membrane
Microvilli ____ the surface area increase
where are microvilli comonly found kidneys, tubules and intestinal cells
actin filaments microvilli(contactile proteins that get long and short)
what are the 3 factors that bind cells? glycoproteins/adhesive wavy nature of cell membranes membrane junctions
what are the 3 forms of juntions which bind a cell? tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions
tight junctions keeps inter-cellular fluid from passing from cell to cell
tight junctions function like a zipper
an example of tight junctions epithelial cells in the digestive tract
Desmosomes act as mechanical connectors preventing tissue separation
in desmosomes, cell membranes don't touch one another, they are instead held together by glycoprotein filaments anchored by keratin filaments in each cell.
spot desmosomes anchor cells in certain spots
belt desmosomes form bands around entire cell
Gap junctions provide direct passage of chemical substances between adjacent cells
at junctions adjacent cell membranes are connected by hollow channels made up of connexons
connexons hollow channel transmembrane protein
gap junctions all ____ to pass from cell to cell small molecules, sugars, ions
gap junctions are especially important in electrically excitable tissue such as hear, smooth muscle, and some nerve cells
the plasma membrane functions as the membrane transporter
intersitial fluid contains nutrients, vitamins, wasteproducts, and neurotrasmitters
cell membranes are selectively permeable
In what two ways can substances leave or enter a cell? passive transport, active transport
passive transport substances enter cell without spending energy (diffusion)
active transport the cell must expend atp in order to move substance
diffusion tendency of molecules or ions to scatter randomly and evenly
conentration gradient greater the difference in 2 area the faster the diffusion
particles diffuse from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
simple diffusion when a small non polar molecule passes through a lipid bilayer
if oxygen concentration is higher in blood than in tissues than____ Oxygen will flow to tissues
very small polar or charged particles are ______ by the lipid bilayer but pass thru______ repelled, but pass thru channel pores
osmolarity total concentration of all solute paricles in a solution
osmosis diffusion of water thru selectively permeable membrane
_____ is one of the only polar molecules which passes through membrane pores. water
isotonic solution solution that has the same concentration of solutes as the cells.
tonicity ability of solution to change cell shape by changing internal water volume
hyptertonic solution solution has higher concentration of solutes as the cells
if more water leaves the cell than enters the cell is said to become flacid
hypotonic solution solution has lower concentration of solutes as the cell
if more water enters the cell than leaves the cell will eventually rutpure
why don't plant cells rupture? B/c they have cell walls
hydrostatic pressure back pressure exerted by water on a membrane
osmotic pressure water attracting ability of plasma proteins
if hydrostatic pressure is equal to osmotic pressure than osmosis stops
facilitated diffusion when lipid insoluble molecules combine with lipid soluble protein carriers in order to pass through cell membranes.
facilitated diffusion is selective because it depends on the unique structure of the substance.
which 4 substances are vital to cellular homeostasis and transport passively oxygen, water, glucos and co2
filtration water and solutes are forced thru membrane of vessel wall by hydrostatic pressure of blood
hydrodstatic pressure pushes filtration from high pressure to low presure
an example of a hydrostatic pressure system is kidney filtration
filtration is not selective
filtration removes everying except blood cells and molecules to big to pass through pores
filtration is important especially to diabetics b/c if blood sugar is high, urine sugar is high too. filtration removes the extra (sugar)
active processes are used when the substance is too large to pass thru pores, cannot disolve in the the bilipid membrane, or must move against a concentration gradient
The two types of active transport processes are facilitated diffusion and bulk transport
another name for active transport is facilitated diffusion
active transport is similar to faciltated transport because they both have carrier proteins
the main difference between active transport and facilitated transport is facilitated transport will never go agains the gradient
In active transport enzyme like proteins serve as cariers or solute pumps
solute pumps move amino acid and ions against a concentration gradient
solute pumps must use____ in order to do work ATP
Protein carriers change shape in order to move bound solutes across a membrane
cells actively accumulate amino acids
_____ is pumped against the concentration gradient into cells amino acids
cells which have high K+ ion concentration and low NA + concentration move ions across when? a nerve ending stimulates a muscle cell to contract
If muscle contraction is to proceed K+ and na+ ions must return to their original positions
sodium potassium atpase simultaneously moves na+ and K+ ions across cell membranes
bulk transport the passage of macromoleules and large particles thru a cell driven by atp
2 types of bulk transport exocytosis, endocytosis
exocytosis substances are moved from cell interior to exterior
in exocytosis the substance to be released is first enclosed in a mambraneous sac which fuses with cell membrane then ruptures
Examples of macoromolecules that get released by exocytosis include mucus, waste, hormones, and neurotransmitters
Endocytosis the passage of macromolecules into a cell driven by atp
in endocytosis cell membranes first envelope material to be ingested then pinch it off in into the cytoplasm
Three types of endocytosis includes phagosytosis, pinocytosis, recptor mediated endocytosis
phagocytosis cell eating, cell membrane surrounds a solid material and destroys it.
pinocytosis cell drinking
phagosome is the membronous sac engulfed during phagocytosis
phagosomes often work with lycosomes
An example of a phagosome is macrophages and white bood cells
the pagocyte moves by amoeboid moving using pseudopods
in pinocystosis cell membranes suck in a drop of intersitial fluid containing disoved solutes to form pinocytotic vesicle
an example of a pinocytotic vesicle is intestinal cells
receptor mediated endocytosis is very selective
in Receptor mediated endocytosis receptors are cell membrane proteins that bond with certain molecules
in RM endocytosis receptors and attached molecules are ingested forming a coated pit
coated pit bristle like protein clathrin that surrounds vescile.
example of RM endocytosis includes insulin, ldl, and iron
coated pit combines with ____ to release it contents lysosome
Created by: Renee Fazio