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GCN N170 Respiratory

N170 Respiratory Study Aid

QuestionAnswer
orthopnea abnormal condition in which a person must use several pillows when lying down
atelectasis Collapse of the alveoli that prevents normal resp. exchange of oxygen and CO2
hypoxia inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level
chest physiotherapy A group of therapies used in combination to mobilize pulmonary secretions
postural drainage positioning techniques that draw secretions from specific segments of lungs and bronchi into the trachea:
pneumothorax The collection of air in the pleural space
hemothorax An accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity between the parietal and visceral pleurae, usually a result of trauma:
pursed-lip breathing This involves deep inspiration and prolonged expiration through pursed lips to prevent alveolar collapse
diaphragmatic breathing This technique requires the client to relax intercostal and accesory resp. muscles while taking deep inspirations
Nasal Cannula: Flow rate and %O2 delivered 24%-44% of concentrated oxygen delivered at 1-6 Liters per minute; Oxygen delivered is not affected by mouth breathing. Oxygen delivered is dependent on amount client respiratory effort and amount of room air inhaled with each breath
Simple face mask: Flow rate and %O2 delivered Low flow oxygen mask - 5-10 liters per minute: delivers 35-50% O2; Used for short term therapy
Venturi Mask: Flow rate and %O2 delivered High flow mask - 24%-60% concentrated oxygen delivered at 4-10 liters per minute. Most precise and consistent mask device.
Non rebreather mask: flow rate and % O2 delivered Low flow oxygen face mask that delivers highest concentration of oxygen. 10 liters per minute; 60-80% oxygen
Diffusion Process for exchange of respiratory gases in the alveoli & the capillaries of the body tissue
Partial Rebreather Mask Low flow oxygen mask with resevoir bag allows mix of room air and O2- 6-10 liters per minute; 40-70% O2
Base Excess indicates the amount of bicarb available in the ECF normal value: +/- 2 mEq/L
Hemothorax An accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity between the parietal and visceral pleurae, usually a result of trauma
Pneumothorax Collection of air in the pleural space
HCO3- (bicarb) normal 22-26 mEq/L (decreased in acidosis, increased in alkalosis)
pH *negative logarithm of H+ ion concentration in mEq/L (as H+ ion concentration increases, pH decreases) *normal values 7.35 -7.45 (less is acidotic, more is alkalotic)
SaO2 the percent of Hb saturated with O2, a calculated value
PaO2 amount of oxygen available to bind with hemoglobin, amount of pressure exerted on O2 by plasma
BE "base excess" indicates the amount of bicarb available in the ECF normal value: +/- 2 mEq/L
PaCO2 *partial pressure of CO2 *reflects adequacy of alveolar ventilation, regulated by lungs, alterations indicate resp disturbance *normal values 35-45 mmHg (less is alkalotic, more is acidotic)
respiratory alkalosis CV signs tachycardia, palpitations, increased myocardial irritability
respiratory alkalosis respiratory signs rapid shallow breathing (trying to retain CO2, oxygenate), chest tightness
Causes of respiratory alkalosis hyperventilation, sepsis/infection, over ventilation, hepatic cirrhosis
respiratory acidosis cardiac signs hypotension, peripheral vasodilation weak thready pulse, tachycardia, warm flushed skin
respiratory acidosis respiratory signs dyspnea, slow shallow respirations, hypoxia and hypoventilation, cyanosis
Causes of respiratory acidosis respiratory depression/arrest, inadequate chest expansion, airway obstruction, interference with alveolar capillary exchange
respiratory acidosis CNS signs HA, seizures, altered LOC, papilledema, twitching/tremors, drowsy --> coma
Respiratory acidosis CNS signs paresthesia, dizzyness, confusion, tetany, convulsion, numb/tingling, light headed, anxiety/panic, Loss of consciousness, hyperactive reflexes
metabolic alkalosis respiratory signs hypoventilation, respiratory failure
metabolic alkalosis CV signs tachycardia, HTN, PVC, atrial tachycardia, dysthrythmias
Causes of metabolic alkalosis vomiting, NG suctioning, eating bicarb-based antacids, diuretics
metabolic acidosis respiratory signs Kussmaul/deep/rapid respirations, trying to blow off CO2
metabolic acidosis CNS signs HA (from cerebral edema), lethargy, coma, confusion/restless, weakness
metabolic alkalosis GI signs n/v, anorexia, paralitic ileus (hypokalemia)
metabolic acidosis GI signs n/v, diarrhea, abdominal pain
Causes of metabolic acidosis chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, starvation, renal failure, DKA, trauma, shock, sepsis, fever, salicylate toxicity
Cheyne Stokes Respiration Rhythmic waxing and waning of respirations from very deep to very shallow breaths and temporary apnea
Kussmaul’s breathing A form of hyperventilation demonstrated by an Increased rate and depth of respirations associated with metabolic acidosis
Stridor Shrill harsh sound heard during inspiration with laryngeal obstruction
CO2 Stimulator of the respiratory center
Hypoventilation occurs when alveolar ventilation is inadequate to meet the body's oxygen demand or to eliminate sufficient CO2
Hyperventilation state of ventilation in excess of that required to eliminate the normal venous CO2 produced by cellular metabolism
Created by: mmaze