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Brady Prehospital care... chp. 1 -25

Routes of Medications Sublingual, Oral, Inhalation, Intramuscular(Injection)
Aspirin Physiological Actions Inhibits Platelet Aggregation, Diminished Peripheral Activity of Prostaglandins
Aspirin Therapeutic Effects Anticoagulant, Antipyretic, Analgesic
Aspirin Indications Suspected AMI
Aspirin Contraindications Bleeding Disorders, Active gastric/peptic ulcer, Hypersensitivity
Aspirin Dosage 160-325 mg
Aspirin Route Oral
Aspirin Special Notes Instruct patient to chew pills and provide a small quantity of water if requested. This will increase absorption of the ASA and reduce its effects on the gastric mucosa
Aspirin Side Effects Gastric Irritation, Exacerbation of Gastric Ulcers
Anaphylactic Shock A Severe form of an allergic reaction with systemic alterations in the patients airway, breathing, and circulatory status.
Antigen a Foreign substance that enters the body and triggers an immune response.
Anti-Bodies Special Protiens produced by the immune system that search out antigens, combine with, and help to destroy them.
Medications Carried on Ambulance Oxygen, Oral Glucose, Activated Charcoal, and Aspirin.
Sublingual Route The Medication is placed under the patient's tongue.(the patient does not swallow the medication) It is dissolved and absorbed across the mucous membrane in the mouth.(Ex. Nitro spray and Nitro Tablets)
Oral Route The Drug Is swallowed (ex. Activated Charcoal, Oral Glucose, Aspirin)
Inhalation The Medication is prepared as a gas or aerosol and is inhaled by the patient. (ex. Oxygen, Meter-dose inhaler, liquid/vaporized fixed-dose nebulizer.
Injection (intramuscular) The drug is injected into a muscle mass. (ex. Epinephrine with the use of an auto-injecter)
Medication Forms Compressed powder or tablet, liquid for injection, Gel, and Suspension, Fine Powder for inhalation, gas, spray, liquid/vaporized fixed-dose nebulizer.
Essential Medication Information Indications, Contraindications, Dose, Administration, Actions, Side Effects.
Indications Most common uses of the drug in treating a specific condition. (geared toward the relief of signs, symptoms, or specific conditions)
Contraindictions Situations in which the drug should not be administered because of the potential harm that could be caused to the patient.
Dose Indicates how much of the drug should be given to the patient.
Administration Refers to the route and form in which the drug is given.
Actions The effect the drug has on the body.
Side Effects The Undesired effects of a Medication(ex. Epinephrine side effects are increased heart rate and anxiety.)
Allergen A substance that enters the body by ingestion
Toxicology the study of toxins
Exposure contact with a poison
Overdose Excessive exposure to a poison
Ingestion Swallowing of a poison. (the most common route of poisoning)
S.L.U.D.G.E. Indications for Child that ingested Poison:___Salvation, Lacrimation(tearing), Urination, Defecation, Gastrointestinal Distress, Emesis.
Ways Antigens Enter The Body Skin, Gastrointestinal Tract, or Respiratory Tract.
Drug and Alcohol Emergency (high Priority) Indicators 1)Unresponsiveness, 2)Respiratory Difficulties, 3)Fever, 4)High or low pulse rate, or an irregular pulse, 5)Vomiting with altered mental status, 6)Seizures.
Overdose is an emergency that involves poisoning by drugs or alcohol
Adverse Reaction any unexpected or dangerous reaction to a drug
CNS Stimulants excite the central nervous system
CNS Depressants depress the central nervous system
Narcotics are CNS depressants that are derived from opium(opiates) or synthetic opium(opioids)
Hallucinogens cause hallucinations
Volatile Inhalants substances that are inhaled
Signs and Symptoms of Delirium Tremens(DT's) Sever Confusion, Loss of Memory, Tremors, Restlessness and irritability, Extremely high fever, Dilated Pupils, Profuse sweating, insomnia, elevated blood pressure, tachycardia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, hallucinations, mostly of frightening nature(ex
Stages of Alcohol Withdrawl Syndrome Stage 1: alcoholic tremulousness, Stage 2: alcoholic hallucinosis, Stage 3: Withdrawal seizures, Stage 4: Delirium Tremens.
Convection Body heat is lost to surrounding air, which becomes warmer, rises, and is replaced with cooler air.
Radiation Body heat is lost to nearby objects without physically touching them
Evaporation Body heat causes perspiration which is lost from the body surface when changed from liquid to vapor
Conduction Body heat is lost to nearby objects through direct physical touch
Hyperthermia High body temperature
Hypothermia Low body temperature
Anxiety state of painful uneasiness about impending problems
Phobias Irrational fears of specific things, places, or situations.
Depression Condition characterized by deep feelings of sadness, worthlessness, and discouragement, feelings that often do not seem connected to the actual circumstances of the patients life.
Bipolar Disorder (AKA: Manic-depressive disorder)causes a patient to swing to opposite sides of the mood spectrum
Paranoia highly exaggerated or unwarranted mistrust or suspiciousness.
Schizophrenia suffers debilitating distortions of speech and thought, bizarre delusions, hallucinations, social withdrawal, and lack of emotional expressiveness.
Suicide any willful act desighned to end ones own life.
Activated Charcoal Doses 1 gram per kilogram of body weight.
Activated Charcoal Contraindictions 1)Altered mental status (not fully conscious), 2)Swallowed acids or alkalis, 3)Unable to swallow.
The Highway Safety Act of 1966 required each state to establish a highway safety program that met prescribed federal standards and included emergency services
The Emergency Medical Services System Act of 1973 provided access to millions of dollars of funding geared to EMS system planning and implementation, personnel availability, and training
Two General Systems by which the public can access emergency medical services: 9-1-1 and non-9-1-1
Special Facilities to which some patients may need to be transported include: trauma center, burn center, obstetrical center, pediatric center, poison center, stroke center, cardiac center, hyperbaric center, spine injury center, psychiatric center
Roles and Responsibilities of the EMT own safety, safety of crew, the patient, and bystanders at the scene, patient assessment, emergency care, safe lifting and moving, proving oral and written reports, safe transport of the patient, transfer of patient care, record keeping and data collectio
Medical Director a physician who is legally responsible for the clinical and patient care aspects of the EMS system.
Protocols Comprise a full set of guidelines that define the entire scope of medical care
Offline Medical direction direction provided through a set of predetermined, written guidelines that allow the EMT to use his or her judgement to administer emergency care
On-line medical direction the EMT acquires permission from a physician via cell phones, telephone, or radio communication prior to administering specific emergency care
Standing orders a subset of protocols that do not require real-time physician input
Quality Improvement (QI) a system of internal and external review and audits of all aspects of an emergency medical system
EMT role in quality improvement: Document carefully, Perform reviews and audits, Obtain feedback, Maintain equipment, Participate in continuing education, Maintain skills
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) a federal law passed in 1990 that protects individuals with a documented disability from being denied initial or continued employment based on their disability
Medical Direction medical policies, procedures, and practices that are available to EMS providers either off-line or on-line
Death and Dying Five Emotional Stages Denial ('not me"), Anger ("why me?'), Bargaining ("okay, but first let me..."), Depression (okay, but i havent...."), Acceptance (okay, i am not afraid..)
Common Signs and Symptoms of Stress Reactions 1) Irritability with coworkers, family, and friends (2)Inability to concentrate (3) Difficulty sleeping and nightmares (4) Anxiety (5) Indecisiveness (6) Guilt (7) Loss of appetite (8) Loss of sexual desire or interest (9) Isolation (10) loss of interest
Most Important way you can prevent the spread of infection Washing your hands
Diseases of Concern Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Tuberculosis, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), West Nile Virus, Multidrug- Resistant Organisms
Burnout a condition resulting from chronic job stress, characterized by a state of irritability and fatigue that can markedly decrease effectiveness
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) a session usually held within 24 to 72 hours of a critical incident, where a team of peer counselors and mental health professionals help emergency service personnel work through the emotions that normally follow a critical incident
Pathogens Microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses that cause disease
Abandonment the act of discontinuing emergency care with out ensuring that another health care professional with equivalent or better training will take over
Advance Directive instructions, written in advance, such as a living will or a do not resuscitate order (DNR)
Assault a willful threat to inflict harm on a person
Battery the act of touching a person unlawfully without his consent
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) a federal regulation that ensures the publics access to emergency health care regardless of ability to pay
Defamation an intentional false communication that injures another persons reputation or good name
Do Not Resuscitate Order (DNR) a legal document, usually signed by the patient and his physician, that indicates to medical personnel which, if any, life-sustaining measures should be taken when the patients heart and respiratory functions have ceased
Duty to Act the obligation to care for a patient who requires it
Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act a federal regulation that ensures the publics access to emergency health care regardless of ability to pay
Expressed Consent permission that must be obtained from every conscious, mentally competent adult before emergency treatment may be provided
False Imprisonment the intentional and unjustifiable detention of a person without his consent or other legal authority
Good Samaritan Law a law that provides immunity from liability for acts performed in good faith to assist at the scene of a medical emergency unless those acts constitute gross negligence
Implied Consent the assumption that, in a true emergency where a patient who is unresponsive or unable to make a rational decision is a significant risk of death, disability, or deterioration of condition, that the patient would agree to emergency treatment
Informed Consent consent for treatment that is given by a competent patient based on full disclosure of possible risks and consequences
Intentional Tort a wrongful act, injury, or damage that is comitted knowingly
Libel the act of injuring a persons reputation or good name in writing or through the mass media with malicious intent or reckless disregard for the falsity of those statements
Minor Consent permission obtained from a parent or legal guardian for emergency treatment of a minor or a mentally incompetent adult
Negligence the act of deviating from an accepted standard of care through carelessness, inattention, disregard, inadvertence, or oversight, which results in further injury to the patient
Simple Negligence is a failure to perform care or commission of an error in care
Gross Negligence is willful, wanton, or extreme recklessness and that can be construed as being dangerous the the patient
Proximate Cause the act of deviating from an accepted standard of care through carelessness, inattention, disregard, inadvertence, or oversight, which results in further injury to the patient
Scope of Practice the actions and care that are legally allowed to be provided by an EMT
Slander the act of injuring a persons reputation or good name through spoken statements with malicioud intent or reckless disregard for the falsity of those statements
Standard of care emergency care that would be expected to be given to a patient by any trained EMT under similar circumstances
Tort a wrongful act, injury, or damage
Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) Liver, Right Kidney, Colon, Pancreas, Gallbladder
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) Colon, Small intestines, Major artery and vein to the right leg, Ureter, Appendix
Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) Liver, Spleen, Left Kidney, Stomach, Colon, Pancreas
Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) Colon, Small intestines, Major artery and vein to the left leg, Ureter
Flexion bending toward the body or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
Extension straightening away from the body or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
Abduction movement AWAY from the midline
Adduction movement TOWARD the midline
Pronation turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the back
Supination turning the forarm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the front
Created by: LivLogik