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Psych Unit 3

Parts of the Brain

Phrenology Studying the bumps in a person's head to see their abilities or characteristics.
Localization of Function Different areas of the brain do different things.
Biological Psychology Studying the links between biological and psychological processes.
Biopsychological systems Biology, Psychology, and sociology all link together.
Neurons A nerve cell, the building blocks of the nervous system.
Dendrites (listens) Bushy fibers that receive information and sends it to the cell body.
Axon (Speaks) A fiber that sends the message to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
Myelin Shield Fatty tissue incasing the axon, speeds up the impulses.
Action Potential A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
Multiple Sclerosis The myelin shield deteriates which leads to lack of communication, which leads to loss of muscle controls.
Depolarizes The positive ions from outside the axon flow inside the axon to the negative ions, depolarizing.
Refractory Period A period of inactivity after a neuron has fired.
Excitatory Pushing the neuron's excelerator.
Inhibitory Pushing the neuron's break.
Threshold The level of stimulation needed to trigger a neural impulse.
All or none response A neuron will either fire or not, it doesn't have more intensity based on the stimulis.
Synapse The tiny gap between a neurons axon and another neurons dendrite.
Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that travel across the synapse.
Reuptake The sending neuron reabsorbs the neurotransmitters.
Endorphin A natural morphine in the body that eases pain and gives pleasure.
Agonist Found in drugs works as a neurotransmitter to create a temporary high.
Antagonists Binds to receptors while blocking neurotransmitters.
Nervous System The electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
Central Nervous System (CNS) The brain and spinal cord, makes decisions.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body. Communicates.
Nerves Bundled axons that form neural "cables" that connect the CNS with the muscles, glands, and sense organs.
Sensory (afferent) neurons Carry sensory receptor info to the CNS.
Motor (efferent) neurons Carry info from the CNS to the muscles and glands.
Interneurons Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Somatic Nervous System (Skeletal nervous system) The part of PNS that controls your skeletal system.
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) The part of PNS that controls glands and muscles of internal organs.
Sympathetic nervous system Arouses or expends energy. Part of the ANS.
Parasympathetic nervous system Conserving energy.
Neural Networks Work groups the brains neurons cluster into.
Reflexes Simple, automatic responses to sensory stimulus. (A knee jerk response)
Endocrine System The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secretes hormones into the blood stream.
Horomones Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands and travel through the blood stream to effect other tissue.
Adrenal Glands Endocrine glands above the kidneys, secrete hormones that arouse the body at times of stress (epinephrine and norepinephrine)
Pituitary Glands Endocrine's most influential gland. Under the hypothalamus the gland regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Lesion A naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
EEG (Electroencephalogram) A amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain's surface. Measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. (Brain function)
CT scan (Computed tomography) X-rays of the brain to detect damage. (Anatomy)
PET scan (Positron Emission Tomography) A visual of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain preforms a task. (Brain Function)
MRI Reveals brain structure, functional MRI reveals brain function.
BrainStem Oldest and most central part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; it is responsible for automatic survival functions.
Pons Helps coordinate movement.
Medulla Controls pumping of the heart and breathing.
Thalamus The brains sensory control center, on top of the brainstem.
Reticular Formation A nerve network that travels through the brain stem, controls arousal.
Cerebellum "little brain" processes sensory input, coordinates movement output and balance, and enables non-verbal learning.
Limbic System neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; controls emotions and drives.
Amygdala neural clusters linked to emotions.
Hypothalamus A neural structure below the thalamus. Directs, eating, drinking, and body temperature. Governs the endocrine system, and is linked to emotion and reward.
Hippocampus Process conscious memories.
Created by: emag
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