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Sensation activation of sensory receptors prior to perception
Perception The process of interpreting sensory information
Bottom-up processing Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
Top-down processing Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
Absolute threshold The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.
Signal detection theory Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus(signal) amid background stimulation(noise). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
Subliminal Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
Difference threshold The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.
Weber's law The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant ammount).
Sensory adaptation Decreasing responsiveness to stimuli, due to constant stimulation.
Feature detectors neurons in the visual cortex that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
Constancy (size, shape, color) Our ability to maintain a constant perception of an object despite changes due to changing angles, variations in light, distance et.
Sensory habituation our perception of sensations is partially due to how focused we are on them
Cocktail-party phenomenom involuntary change of attention when you hear your name
Kinesthesis [kin-ehs-THEE-sehs] sensing the position and movement of specific body parts.
Vestibular sense The sense of where our body is in space including the sense of balance.
Gate-control theory high priority pain messages open the neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals and allows them to pass on to the brain while blocking lower priority pain messages
Gustation chemical sense of taste
Olfaction chemical sense of smell
Proximity objects that are close together are likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
Similarity objects that are similar in appearance are likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
Continuity objects that form a continuous form are more likely to be perceived as being in the same group
Closure Like top-down processing, objects that make a recognizable image are likely to perceived even if the image contains gaps that the mind fills in
Gestalt rules describe the principles that govern how we perceive groups of objects
Perceptual set a predisposition to perceiving something in a certain way
Transduction translation of incoming stimuli into neural signals
Energy senses vision, hearing, touch
Chemical senses taste and smell
Created by: ninacn