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GCN N170 Diabetes

N170 Diabetes Study Aid

QuestionAnswer
Hyperglycemia FBS >110mg/dl
Hypoglyemia Blood Glucose <60mg/dL
Risk Factors BMI >27, HTN >140/90, family history, elevated triglycerides & HDL
Impaired Glucose Tolerance FBS 110-126mg/dL
Diabetes Mellitus FBS >126mg/dL
Ketone By product of Fat breakdown; circulate in both blood and urine
Glycated Hemoglobin HgbA1C; normally 4-6 %, or 4.0-6.0
Rapid Acting Insulins Aspart =(Novolog) Lispro =(Humolog)
Short Acting Insulins Humolog R; Novolog R; Iletin II R
Intermediate Acting Insulins NPH; Humulin N; Novolin N; Novolin L
Long Acting Insulins Ultralente
Very Long Acting Insulins Glargine (Lantus)
Lantus Insulin Onset = 1 hour. Peakless = used as a basal insulin. Duration = 24 hours
Lispro (Humalog) Onset Onset = 10-15 minutes
Lispro (Humalog) Peak Peak = 1 hour
Lispro (Humalog)Duration Duration = 2-4 hours
Aspart (Novolog)Onset Onset = 5-15 min
Aspart (Novolog)Peak Peak = 40-50 minutes
Aspart (Novolog) Duration Duration = 2-4 hours
Humolog R or Novolin R Peak *usually administered 20-30 minutes before meal Peak = 2-3 hours
Humolog R or Novolin R Onset Onset = 1/2-1 hour
Humolog R or Novolin R Duration Duration = 4-6 hours
NPH Onset *Usually administered after food Onset = 2-4 hours
NPH Peak Peak = 4-12 hours
NPH Duration Duration = 16-20 hours
Humulin N or Novolin N ONset Onset = 3-4 hours
Humulin N or Novolin N Peak Peak = 4-12 hours
Humulin N or Novolin N Duration Duration = 16-20 hours
Ultra Lente Onset*used primarily to control Fasting Glucose Onset = 6-8 hours
Ultra Lente Peak Peak = 12-16 hours
Ultra Lente Duration Duration 20-30 hours
Lente Onset Onset = 3-4 hours
Lente Peak Peak = 4-12 hours
Lente Duration Duration 16-20 hours
Sulfonylureas Chlorpopamide (Diabenese);Tolazamide (Tolinase);Tolbutamide (Orinase);Aceohexamide * "mide" - sulfonylurea
Sulfonylureas Glipizide (Glucatrol);Glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta);Glimepiride (Amaryl) *"ide" = sulfonylureas
Biguanides Metformin (Glucophase, Glucophage)
Alpha Glugosidase Inhibitors Acarbose (Precose); Miglitol (Glyset)
Non- Sulfonylurea Insulin Secretagogues Repalinide (Prandin)= meglitinide
Thiaxolidinediones (glitazones) Pioglitazone Actos); Rosiglitazone (Avandia)
SulfonylureaMechanism of Action Oral Antidiabetic Agent that: Stimulates Beta cells to secrete insulin
Biguanides Oral Antidiabetic Agent that: Inhibits production of glucose by the liverAlso increases body tissue sensitivity to insulin
Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors Oral Antidiabetic Agent that: Does not increase insulin secretion. Delays absorption of carbohydrates in the intestine resulting in slow entry of glucose into systemic circulation
Non-Sulfonylurea Insulin Secretagogues Oral Antidiabetic Agent that: Stimulates pancreas to increase insulin
Thiazolidinediones Oral Antidiabetic Agent that: Increases body tissue sensitivity to insulin; stimulate insulin receptor sites to lower blood glucose and improves the action of insulin
S&S Hypoglycemia Adrenergic symptoms-Increased epinephrine and norepinephrine resulting in;sweating, tremor, tachycardia nervousness and hunger
S&S Hypoglycemia CNS Symptoms: headache, inability to concentrate, lightheadedness, confusion, numbness of the lips and tongue, irrational behavior, dowble vision, drowsiness progressing to seizures and loss of consciousness.
S&S Hyperglycemia Symptoms -Polyuria; Polydipsia; Orthostatic hypotension; Acetone Breath "fruity breath"
Long Term Complications of Diabetes Mellitus Coronary Artery Disease, Cerebral Vasular Disease & Peripheral Vascular Disease
Long Term Complications of DM Retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma
Long Term Complications of DM Nephropathy - renal disease
Created by: mmaze