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T2-Nutrition

Nut Lecture/SG Qs - FI

QuestionAnswer
Name 2 classes of vitamins Water soluble and fat soluble
Describe Water-Soluble vitamins Stored in limited amts for short periods of time. Excrete what isn't needed. Contains high doses of niacin, Vit B6, choline, and Vit C result in toxicity.
Describe Fat-Soluble vitamins Can have excess. Able to be stored in body for longer time. Dietary intake is still necessary with excepts. Vit K in dark green leafy veges but body also produces within large intest. Toxicity is poss usually related to intake of synthetic vit.
Define vitamins Organic subs in small amts in foods & are essent for normal metabolism. Serve as coenzymes in cellular enzyme reactions. Body unable to synthsz vit in req amts & depends on dietary intake. Exception is Vit K which body synthesizes by bacteria in intest.
Define carbohydrates Provide energy to cells. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Starches & sugars obtained mainly from plant foods, with exception of lactose. Contribute <90% of total caloric intake in parts of world. Source of energy, providing 4 kcal/g
Name 2 types of carbohydrates Simple and Complex
Examples of Simple carbohydrates Glucose-corn sugar, Ffructose-fruit, Sucrose-Table sugar, Lactose-milk sugar
Examples of Complex carbohydrates Starch-grains, legumes, Root veges
Define Fiber Does not yield energy, provides structural part of plants, sometimes called nonstarch polysaccharides. Includes some nonpolysaccharides such as lignins & tannins. Human digestive enzymes can’t break down fiber, so they don't contrib calorically to diet.
2 types of fiber Soluble & Insoluble
Describe Soluble fiber Becomes a gel in water and delays gastrointestinal transit time so it helps prevent diarrhea in tube-fed pts.
Describe Insoluble fiber Doesn’t change in water and accelerates intestinal transit, which is helpful in preventing constipation in pts taking pn medication.
Define Lipids Compounds that’re insoluble in H2O but soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol & acetone. At room temp, solid fats & liquid oils. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen. Source of energy, providing 9 kcal/g. <30% of total cals, <10% from sat fats
What type of lipids should you ingest if you have elevated LDL levels? Monounsaturated fats and soluble fiber
Define Protein Composed of AA of carbon, H, nitrogen, O, usually sulfur, & occas phosphorus, iron, iodine, or others. Major source of building mat for muscles, blood, skin, hair, nails, & internal organs. Essent 4 growth, maint & repair. Source of E=4kcal/g. Req varies.
Define Nutrient Chem subs that provides nourishmnt & affects metabolic & nutritive processes. Essential nutrients are C, P, F, Vit, minerals, & H2O. Only C, P, F provide energy. Vit & Min are catalysts for use of nutrients for E. Mins & H2O regulate body processes.
Define Minerals Inorganic elements that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions
What are macrominerals? When daily requirement is 100mg or more
What are microminerals? When daily requirement is less than 100 mg
What do macrominerals do? Play role in balancing pH of body, and specific amts are necessary in blood and cells to promote acid-base balance.
What do microminerals do? AKA trace elements bc req amt is trace. TM food content is var & may depend on content of mins in soil/H2O. Interactions occur. Excess of TM can cause defic of another. Defic of 1 allows toxicity of another. Defic of TM can worsen defic of another.
Define Amino Acids Building blocks of proteins and end products of protein digestion
Examples of fat-soluble vitamins? Vit A, D, E, K
Examples of water-soluble vitamins? Vit C and Vit B complex
Define DRI’s Dietary Reference Intakes – Define the recommended amts of nutrients based on scientific evidence with goal of chronic disease prevention
Name 4 components of DRIs Estimated Average Required (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), Adequate Intakes (AIs), and Upper Intake Levels (ULs)
Describe EAR Estimated Average Required (EAR) - amt of nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specific body function for 50% of population and is recommended based on age and gender
Describe RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - represents the avg needs of 98% of population, not the exact needs of an individual
Describe AI Adequate Intakes (AIs) – suggested intake for individuals based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intakes by groups and is provided when there is insufficient evidence to set RDA
Describe UL Upper Intake Levels (ULs) – highest level that likely poses no risk of adverse health events. Not recommended level of intake
What are the parts of intake to elimination? Digestion, Absorptions, Metabolism, Storage, and Elimination
Describe Digestion Starts in mouth where mastication break down food & amylase break down starches. Mucus lubes food through esophagus into stomach. Stomach mixes acid c food & cont into small intestine where digestive proteins break food particles into simpler form.
Describe Absorption Simple nutrnts absrbd mainly in small int. Large int absorb electrolytes & H2O. Upper duodenum absorb choles, Vit E,K, folic acid, riboflvn, & thiamin. Lower duodenum & upper jej absorb glucose, AA, mins, & fats. Lower jej/ileum absorb sucros/lactos/ma
Describe Metabolism All of the biochemical and physiological processes by which he body maintains itself. Metabolism converts nutrients into necessary substances for cell function.
Describe Storage Body stores energy (E) as adipose tissue. Glycogen stored in small reserves in liver & muscle tissue. P stored in muscle mass. When body’s E demands exceed dietary sources, body uses stored E. When body has unused energy, it’s stored principally in fat.
Describe Elimination Contents move through large intest by peristalsis. During movement, H2O reabsorb through mucosa. End products include cellulose & similar fibrous subs body unable digest. Elim sloughed cells from intest walls, mucus, digestive secretions, H2O & microorg
Which vegetarians need supplements (type of supplements needed)? Vegans bc they need Vit B12 and carefully choose foods to ensure ingestion of essential amino acids.
Define Vegans Vegetarians that eat only food of plant origin.
Define Lactovegetarian Vegetarians that drink milk but avoid eggs and other animal-based foods.
Define Ovolactovegetarian Vegetarians that avoid meat, fish, and poultry but eat eggs and drink milk.
What is importance of water intake? Cells function depend on aqueous environ. Roles of H2O include transport of nutrients/waste, provide structure to large molecules (protein, glycogen), partic in metabolic reactions, serv as solvent, lube, & cushion, regulate body T, & maintain blood vol
Describe water Most basic of nutrients, 1500ml/day Minimum for healthy adult, more for athletes or experiencing fever, vomiting/diarrhea, heat, dehydration. Risk in older adults and young children
Describe Thirst Protective mechanism that is alert to need for fluids. Thirst is less reliable guide for infants & confused pts bc they're usually unable to communicate that they are thirsty. Avoid caffeinated drinks. Encourage fruit juices, soups, flavored water
What should you do to have healthy bones? Weight-bearing exercises, Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D, Dairy group
What should you do to have Healthy nervous system? B-Complex vitamins, Calcium and sodium, Grain and dairy foods, Cancer prevention
The Food Pyramid states that you should: Limit saturated and polyunsaturated fat, Use monounsaturated or omega-3 fatty acids (nuts and fish), Fluid intake, High fiber, Limit sodium, Limit alcohol, Exercise regularly
What does the Food Pyramid state should be your daily servings for each food group? 1) Grain – 6 oz daily2) Veges – 2 ½ c daily3) Fruits – 2 c daily4) Milk – 3 c daily (ages 2-8 = 2c)5) Mean & Beans – 5 ½ oz daily
What is the importance of fiber in the diet? Soluble fiber helps prevent diarrhea and insoluble fiber helps in preventing constipation.
How is cholesterol affected by fatty acids? Ingestion of saturated fatty acids appears to increase blood cholesterol levels. Ingestion of unsaturated fatty acids has minimal effect on blood cholesterol. Ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids appear to lower blood cholesterol levels.
Which fats should be increased and which should be minimized in the diet? Monounsaturated fatty acids should be increased in order to lower blood cholesterol levels and saturated fatty acids should be decreased bc they increase blood cholesterol levels.
During the assessment, if your observations indicate a problem, who should you inform? Physician and dietician
What steps do you include in your Assessment? Screening, Nutrition Assessment, Nutritionally-at-risk Adult Clients, Examination, Anthropometry
Describe the Screening process in Assessment Identifying malnutrition or risk of malnutrition. Screening tools include objective measures such as Ht, Wt, Wt change, primary diagnosis, and presence of comorbidities
Describe the Nutrition Assessment process in Assessment In-depth exploration of medical history, dietary history, physical exam, anthropometric measurements, and lab data.
What does the Nutrition Assessment process include? Taking Diet and Medication history from the pt
Describe the Diet history process Focuses on habitual intake of food and liquids and info about preferences, allergies, and digestive probs. Ask open-ended questions, make pt keep detailed record of food intake over 3 days
Why should you take a Medication History? Because prescribed and OTC meds have potential for drug-nutrient interactions
Describe Nutritionally-At-Risk Adult Clients process of Assessment If you find pt at risk for nutritional probs, next step is more in-depth nutritional assessment by an RD. Pt with condition that interferes with ability to ingest, digest, or absorb adequate nutrients needs to be assessed for malnutrition
What typs of pts whould be nutritionally-at-risk? Pts with congenital anomalies, surgical revisions of GI tract, fed only by IV infusiong of 5%-10% dextrose, older adults, infants, and malnourished, pts on IVs greather than 7-10 days, immobile pts, cancer pts doing chemo or radiation therapy
Describe Examination process of Assessment Improper nutrition affects all body systems
During a physical assessment during examination, what should you observe for? Wasted appearance, falling asleep easily, thin, dull and brittle hair, gums that are swollen and bleed easily
Describe Anthropometry process of Assessment System of measuring the size and makeup of the body using ht and wt as principle measures
When using anthropometry, how do you maintain accuracy? Measure ht and wt and same time, on same scales with same clothes on
What tuy
Which vegetarians need supplements (type of supplements needed)? Vegans bc they need Vit B12 and carefully choose foods to ensure ingestion of essential amino acids.
Define Vegans Vegetarians that eat only food of plant origin.
Define Lactovegetarian Vegetarians that drink milk but avoid eggs and other animal-based foods.
Define Ovolactovegetarian Vegetarians that avoid meat, fish, and poultry but eat eggs and drink milk.
What is importance of water intake? Cells function depend on aqueous environ. Roles of H2O include transport of nutrients/waste, provide structure to large molecules (protein, glycogen), partic in metabolic reactions, serv as solvent, lube, & cushion, regulate body T, & maintain blood vol
Describe water Most basic of nutrients, 1500ml/day Minimum for healthy adult, more for athletes or experiencing fever, vomiting/diarrhea, heat, dehydration. Risk in older adults and young children
Describe Thirst Protective mechanism that is alert to need for fluids. Thirst is less reliable guide for infants & confused pts bc they're usually unable to communicate that they are thirsty. Avoid caffeinated drinks. Encourage fruit juices, soups, flavored water
What should you do to have healthy bones? Weight-bearing exercises, Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D, Dairy group
What should you do to have Healthy nervous system? B-Complex vitamins, Calcium and sodium, Grain and dairy foods, Cancer prevention
The Food Pyramid states that you should: Limit saturated and polyunsaturated fat, Use monounsaturated or omega-3 fatty acids (nuts and fish), Fluid intake, High fiber, Limit sodium, Limit alcohol, Exercise regularly
What does the Food Pyramid state should be your daily servings for each food group? 1) Grain – 6 oz daily2) Veges – 2 ½ c daily3) Fruits – 2 c daily4) Milk – 3 c daily (ages 2-8 = 2c)5) Mean & Beans – 5 ½ oz daily
What is the importance of fiber in the diet? Soluble fiber helps prevent diarrhea and insoluble fiber helps in preventing constipation.
How is cholesterol affected by fatty acids? Ingestion of saturated fatty acids appears to increase blood cholesterol levels. Ingestion of unsaturated fatty acids has minimal effect on blood cholesterol. Ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids appear to lower blood cholesterol levels.
Which fats should be increased and which should be minimized in the diet? Monounsaturated fatty acids should be increased in order to lower blood cholesterol levels and saturated fatty acids should be decreased bc they increase blood cholesterol levels.
During the assessment, if your observations indicate a problem, who should you inform? Physician and dietician
What steps do you include in your Assessment? Screening, Nutrition Assessment, Nutritionally-at-risk Adult Clients, Examination, Anthropometry
Describe the Screening process in Assessment Identifying malnutrition or risk of malnutrition. Screening tools include objective measures such as Ht, Wt, Wt change, primary diagnosis, and presence of comorbidities
Describe the Nutrition Assessment process in Assessment In-depth exploration of medical history, dietary history, physical exam, anthropometric measurements, and lab data.
What does the Nutrition Assessment process include? Taking Diet and Medication history from the pt
Describe the Diet history process Focuses on habitual intake of food and liquids and info about preferences, allergies, and digestive probs. Ask open-ended questions, make pt keep detailed record of food intake over 3 days
Why should you take a Medication History? Because prescribed and OTC meds have potential for drug-nutrient interactions
Describe Nutritionally-At-Risk Adult Clients process of Assessment If you find pt at risk for nutritional probs, next step is more in-depth nutritional assessment by an RD. Pt with condition that interferes with ability to ingest, digest, or absorb adequate nutrients needs to be assessed for malnutrition
What typs of pts whould be nutritionally-at-risk? Pts with congenital anomalies, surgical revisions of GI tract, fed only by IV infusiong of 5%-10% dextrose, older adults, infants, and malnourished, pts on IVs greather than 7-10 days, immobile pts, cancer pts doing chemo or radiation therapy
Describe Examination process of Assessment Improper nutrition affects all body systems
During a physical assessment during examination, what should you observe for? Wasted appearance, falling asleep easily, thin, dull and brittle hair, gums that are swollen and bleed easily
Describe Anthropometry process of Assessment System of measuring the size and makeup of the body using ht and wt as principle measures
When using anthropometry, how do you maintain accuracy? Measure ht and wt and same time, on same scales with same clothes on
What wt, food, fluid, and med factors constitute a moderate nutrition risk based on the Nutrition Risk Assessment (NRA) <5% wt change in 30 days, <7.5% within 90 days, or <10% within 6 mo, Intake meets 26-75% of estimated needs, Consumes 1000-1499 cc/day, 2-4 drugs/day
What relevant conditions and diagnoses constitue a moderate nutrition risk based on NRA? Anemia, infection, recent CVA, fracture, UTI, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, COPD, edema, recent surgery, osteoporosis, hx of GI bleed, food intolerances and allergies, poor circulation, constipation, diarrhea, GERD, anorexia, Parkinson’s
What Physical and Mental functioning factors constitue a moderate nutrition risk based on NRA? Out of bed c assist, motor agitation, limited feeding assist, supervision while eating, chewing or swallowing probs, teeth in poor repair, ill-fitting dentures or refusal to wear dentures, edentulous, taste and sensory changes, unable to communicate needs
What lab values and skin conditions constitue a moderate nutrition risk based on NRA? Albumin 3.0-3.4 g/dL, 1-2 other nutrition-related labs abnormal. Stage I/II pressure ulcers of skin tears not healing, hx of pressure ulcers, stasis ulcer, fecal incontinence
What wt, food, fluid, and med factors constitute a high nutrition risk based on the Nutrition Risk Assessment (NRA) BMI <19 or >27, >=5% wt change in 30 days, >=7.5% within 90 days, or >=10% within 6 mo. Intake meets <= 25% of estimated needs. Consumes <1000cc/day. 5+ drugs/day
What relevant conditions and diagnoses constitue a high nutrition risk based on NRA? Advanced Cancer, septicemia, liver failure, dialysis, ESRD, Alzheimer’s dementia, depression, dehydration, dysphagia, radiation/chemo, active GI bleed, chronic nausea, vomiting, ostomy, gastrectomy, fecal impaction, uncontrolled diseases or conditions
What Physical and Mental functioning factors constitue a high nutrition risk based on NRA? Bedridden, inactive, total dependence, extensive or total assistance or dependence while eating, aspirates, tube feeding, TPN, mouth pn
What lab values and skin conditions constitue a high nutrition risk based on NRA? Albumin <3.0 g/dL, 3-5 other nutrition-related labs abnormal. Stage III/IV pressure ulcers or multiple impaired areas
What is the principle measure in anthropometrics? Ht and wt
What should be included in health promotion activities? Food guide pyramid, assist pts with food choices, menu planning, and dietary patterns. Educate about food labels and their meanings.
What should you look for in laboratory values? CBC, Hemoglobing for anemia, serum albumin (shows P synthesis), BUN, Creatinine, Electrolytes, Glucose, Cholesterol (normal is less than 200), Triglycerides
List disruptive influences on pt's nutrition. Diagnostic testing, poor appetite, NPO, Stress, Meds, Symptoms associated with illness, food presentation (too hot, too cold, undercooked, overcooked)
List measurements to promote nutrition. Food presentation, therapeutic diets, providing comfortable environment (free of treatment reminders/odor), provide mouth care, administer analgesics or antimetics, assist pt with feeding, Offer alternatives if refused food
List causes of under-nutrition Dementia, Meds (digoxin, anti-depressants), Impaired Taste (could be meds aging), Malabsorption (IBS, pancrease insufficiency), Endocrine Disorders (thyroid, DM), Poor dentition, dry mouth, impaired vision, disability
What is Coumadin (warfarin) and what should you avoice when taking it? It's a blood-thinner (anti-coagulant). Avoid Vit K rich foods (antidote), liver, Eggs, Green leafy vegs (spinach, broccoli, cabbage>
What is Anti-Parkinson's and what should you avoice when taking it? L-dopa or Sinemet. Avoid High protein, amino acids and vitamin B6 food bc they Decrease duration of therapeutic effects
What can licorice cause and why is it dangerous? It causes hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) and it's dangerous for patients taking certain (not all) heart medications diuretics, laxatives and antidepressants
Where do you find tyramine and why is it dangerous? Found in foods-aged cheese, smoked and pickled meats, red wines. Hypertensive crisis may occur with MAO-inhibitors
What does grapefruit juice interfere with? Interferes with metabolism of many meds. Increases serum level of the medication
When should you avoid potassium rich foods? Avoid in renal disease (or other condition with high potassium levels)
When should you encrouage potassium rich foods? When pt is low in potassium - diuretics, excessive excretion
List some potassium rich foods Sweet and white potatoes, white and lima beans, tomatoes, yogurt, carrots, molasses, tuna, halibut, cod, bananas, peaches, prunes
What special diet should you use for a pt that is hypertensive or CHF? Low sodium, Avoid canned foods, chips, smoked meats, seasonings and processed foods, CHF-may need fluid restriction
What special diet should you use for a pt that has history of Heart Disease? Low-fat, low-cholesterol, Increased fiber, Avoid saturated fat, Limit red meat, Avoid frying, Low fat dairy products
What special diet should you use for a pt that has DM? Complex carbs, Low fat, Limit alc, Wt loss/ exercise, Vit/min supple, Art sweeteners ok, Regular meals/snacks, Monitor glucose, Observe for hyper/hypoglycemia, Acute care, Give insulin as scheduled, Monitor glucose (usually ac & hs), May be on SSI
What special diet should you use for a pt that has Renal (Kidney) Disease? Limit protein and phosphorus, May need increased protein and fluid restriction with dialysis (end-stage), Limit dairy products, Restrict sodium and potassium, Vitamin and mineral supplements only with provider recommendation
What special diet should you use for a pt that has GERD? Avoid Large meals and bedtime snacks, Trigger foods that include Citrus, Spicy, Carbonated, Alcohol, Caffeine, Chocolate, Fatty, Peppermint and spearmint. Avoid Smoking
What special diet should you use for a pt that has Liver Disease? Increased protein needed, May need more calories, Vitamin and mineral supplements, Eliminate alcohol
What special diet should you use for a pt that has Peptic Ulcer Disease? Avoid trigger foods (like GERD), Avoid aspirin and coffee
How should you assist pts with feeding? Oral feeding by mouth, Promote independence, Protect client’s dignity, Allow them to be involved by directing the order of food and the rate of feeding, NEVER feed a patient that can't swallow or lacks gag reflex (after surgery)
Define dysphagia swallowing dysfunction commonly assoc c obstructive or motor disorders of esophagus
What are red flags of dysphagia? coughing-clearing throat, spitting, wet vocal quality, delayed swallowing
How often do we swallow in a day? 2000 times a day
How long does it take for muscles to atrophy? 72 hrs
Define aspiration Food/liq goes into lungs
Define silent aspiration Aspiration that occurs without a cough
List safety precautions to prevent aspiration HOB up (chair best), No straws, Use thick liq, 100% Supervision & Compliance, Chin tuck/double swallow, Speech therapist-screening/assess, Modified barium swallow, Check ID band & read label, Wrong diet could be as hazardous to pt as wrong medication
Define Parenteral Nutrition Therapy (PN) Administration of a solution consisting of glucose, amino acids, lipids, minerals, electrolytes, trace elements, and vits provided through an indwelling peripheral or central venous catheter (injection)
What is a Parenteral Route? IV therapy in peripheral or central vein that supplies H2O, cluvose, and electrolytes. Doesn't supply fat or protein.
If pt is still not able to eat after IV therapy, what happens? Pt given TPN
What is TPN? Total Parenteral Nutrition - nutritionally adequate solution with glucose, amino acids, lipids, minerals and vitamins
Describe an Enteral Feeding/Nutrition Nutrients given into stomach or intestinal tract via feeding tube
When do you use the Enteral Feeding method? When pts can't ingest, chew, or swallow, or can at least partially digest and absorb nutrients.
What should you perform before performing an Enteral Feeding? Verify by x-ray, Aspirate stomach contents (less reliable), Measure pH (less reliable), Head of bed up 30 degrees
Name the types of tubes used during Enteral Nutrition Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube), Jejunostomy Tube (J-Tube), PEG Tube, NG Tube, OG Tube
How often do you discard hanging eneteral feeding bags? Every 24 hrs (bacterial contamination)
At what temp should the feeding bag or can be before an enteral feeding occurs? The bag or can should be at room temp
Name types of Enteral Feedings Bolus, Intermittent, and Continuous
Describe a Bolus Enteral Feeding Given every 4-6 hrs, 250-400 ml over 15 min, directly into stomach
Describe a Intermittent Enteral Feeding Given every 4-6 hrs, 200-300 ml over 30-60 min, used for non-critical, home-tube feedings, and rehab pts
Describe a Continuous Enteral Feeding Best for critically ill, better residuals, less aspiration, flush q4h, consitent flow rates
What are some GI complications from Enteral feedings? Constipation, Diarrhea, Cramping, Pain, Abdominal distention, Dumping syndrome (Usually avoided with PEG tubes), Nausea/vomiting
What are some mechanical complications from Enteral feedings? Irritaion to the nose, esophagus, & mucosa, tube dislodgement, dube obstruction or rupture
What are some metabolic complications from Enteral feedings? Dehydration, hyperglycemia, electrolyte imbalances, over hydration
What is a G-Tube? Gastrostomy Tube – Surgically placed in the stomach and exiting through an incision in the upper left quad of the abdomen where its sutured in place
What is a J-Tube? Jejunostomy Tube inserted during surgery. Used when pts can't do nasal or oral tube & have gastric ileus, delayed gastric emptying, gastric resections, or neurological impairments that place them @ greater risk of aspiration.
What is PEJ tube? PEJ tube is a J-Tube but instead of inserted during surgery, it's inserted during endoscopy
What is a PEG tube? Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube exits through puncture wound in upper left quadrant of abdomen but is held securely in place by virtue of its design
What is a NG tube? tube placed through nose into stomach to deliver feedings
What is a OG tube? tube placed through mouth into stomach to deliver feedings
List nursing measures for pts with a feeding tube Assess for abdominal distention, N&V, Keep HOB at least 30 degrees, esp during feedings, for insertion, and removal to prevent aspiration, Total feeding and irrigating should not exceed 450 ml (250 ml feeding, 200 ml water)
What are methods to assess tube placement? X-ray abdomen, ascultation, CO2 detector, Aspiration of stomach contents, (with or without pH testing)
What is residual feeding? Contents found in the stomach since last meal
How often do you check for residual? Check every 4-6 hrs and return to stomach bc it holds electrolytes, nutrients, and digestive enzymes
When should you hold a feeding? Hold feeding if the feeding exceeds amt given in past 2 hrs
How can you improve supplemental intake? Appropriate temp, opened by pt, actively monitor, encourage sips, serve as part of medication round, encrouage frequent meals, nourishing beverage at dinner
How can you prevent food-borne illness in hospital/pt area? Wash hands, cook food well done, don’t use food past expiration date, refrigerate food at 40 degrees F within 2 hrs of cooking, thaw frozen foods in fridge, discard food that you suspect is spoiled, don’t use wooden cutting boards
What are recommendations for a diabetic diet? Veges/fruits (berries, apples, spinach, green beans). Whole grains, breads & cereal(barley, bran, oats, wheat, & brown rice). Dairy (skim or low-fat milk, yogurt & low-fat cottage cheese). Proteins (fish, poultry, meats, eggs, nuts, & dried beans)
What are recommendations for an AHA diet? Rich in vegetables and fruits, with whole grains, high-fiber foods, lean meats and poultry, fish at least twice a week, and fat-free or 1 percent fat dairy products.
What is Healthy People 2010? Set of health objectives for the Nation to achieve over the first decade of the new century. It can be used by many different people, States, communities, professional organizations, and others to help them develop programs to improve health.
What is glycemic index? GI, measures how a carbohydrate-containing food raises blood glucose. Foods are ranked based on how they compare to a reference food– either glucose or white bread. A food with a high GI raises blood glucose more than a food with a medium or low GI.
What are eating disorders? Abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the detriment of an individuals’ physical and emotional health
Describe the 3 most common eating disorders Binge eating, Anorexia, Bulimia
Created by: mcwilliams05