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Ch. 9 Part B-3

Positioning of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine

In addition to the gonads, which 3 other radiosensitive organs are of greatest concern during cervical and thoracic spine radiography Thyroid gland, para thyroid glands, and female breasts.
Two advantages of using higher kV exposure factors for spine radiography, especially on an AP thoracic spine radiograph Increase in exposure latitude and decrease in patient dose.
T/F When using digital imaging for spine radiography, it is important to use close collimation, grids, and lead masking. True- it is important to use close collimation, grids, and lead masking.
T/F If close collimation is used during conventional radiography of the spine, the use of lead masking is generally not required. False- Lead masking should be used even if close collimation is used.
T/F To a certain degree, MRI and CT are replacing myelography as the imaging modalities of choice for the diagnosis of a ruptured intervertebral disk. True- These modalities are replacing myelography.
T/F Nuclear Medicine is often performed to diagnose bone tumors of the spine. True. Nuclear Medicine is used to diagnose bone tumors of the spine.
To ensure that the intervertebral joint spaces are open for lateral thoracic spine projections, it is important to : Keep the vertebral column parallel to the image receptor.
For lateral and oblique projections of the cervical spine, it is important to minimize magnification and maximize detail by : Using a small focal spot and increasing the source to image receptor distance (SID).
What are the major differences between spondylosis and spondylitis? Spondylitis is an inflammatory process of the vertebrae. Spondylosis is a condition of the spine characterized by rigidity of a vertebral joint.
What is the name of the radiographic procedure that requires the injection of contrast media into the subarachnoid space? Myelography
Which imaging modality is ideal for detecting early signs of osteomyelitis? Nuclear Medicine
T/F Many geriatric patients have a fear of falling off the radiographic table. True.
Which two landmarks must be aligned for an AP "open mouth" projection. The lower margin of upper incisors and the base of the skull.
What is the purpose of the 15 to 20 degree angle for the AP axial projection of the cervical spine? To open the intervertebral disk space.
For an AP axial of the cervical spine, a plane through the tip of the mandible and _______ should be parallel to the angled central ray. Base of skull
What are two important benefits of an SID longer than 40-44 inches for the lateral cervical spine projections? Less divergence of x-ray beam to reduce shoulder superimposition of C7, and compensates for increased OID; reducing magnification.
What central ray angulation must be used with a posterior oblique projection of the cervical spine? 15 degree cephalad angle.
Which foramina are demonstrated with a left posterior oblique (LPO) position of the cervical spine? The right intervertebral foramina or upside.
Which foramina are demonstrated witha a left anterior oblique (LAO) position of the cervical spine? The left intervertebral foramina or downside.
In addition to extending the chin, which additional positioning technique can be performed to ensure that the mandible is not superimposed over the upper cervical vertebrae for the oblique projections? Rotate the skull into a near lateral position.
What is the recommended SID for a lateral projection of the cervical spine? 60" - 72"
The lateral projection of the cervical spine should be taken during _________. Expiration. To maximize shoulder depression.
Which specific projection must be taken first if trauma to the cervical spine is suspected and the patient is in a supine position on a backboard? Lateral, horizontal beam projection.
The proper name of the method for performing the cervicothoracic (swimmer's lateral) projection is the________. Twining method.
Where should the central ray be placed for a cervicothoracic (swimmer's lateral) projection? At T1 1 inch above jugular notch, or at the vertebral prominence (C7)
Which region of the spine must be demonstrated with a cervicothoracic (swimmer's lateral) projection? C4 to T3
Which one of the following projections is considered a "functional study" of the cervical spine. AP wagging jaw projection, AP open mouth position, Fuchs or Judd method, Hyperextension and flexion lateral positions. Hyperextension and flexion lateral positions.
When should the Judd or Fuchs method be performed? If unable to demonstrate the upper portion of the dens with the AP open mouth projection.
Which AP projection of the cervical spine demonstrates the entire upper cervical spine with one single projection? Scoliosis series.
Which two things can be done to produce equal density along the entire thoracic spine for the AP projection (especially for a patient with a thick chest)? correct use of anode-heel effect; use of compensating (wedge) filter.
What is the purpose for using a brething technique for a lateral projection of the thoracic spine? To blur out rib and lung markings that obscure detail of thoracic vertebrae.
Which zygopophyseal joints are demonstrated in a right anterior oblique (RAO) projection of the thoracic spine? The right downside.
Which one of the following projections delivers the greatest skin dose to the patient? AP thoracic spine projection, Lateral cervical spine projection, Swimmer's lateral projection, Fuchs or Judd method. Swimmer's Lateral
Which of the following results in the lowest midline and skin doses for the patient? AP T-Spine projection at 90kV@7 mAs, AP T-spine at 80kV @12 mAs, Lateral T-spine at 80kV@50 mAs, Oblique T-spine at 80kV@20 mAs AP Thoracic spine at 90kV@7mAs
T/F The thyroid dose used during a posterior oblique cervical spine projection is more than 10 times greater than the dose used for an anterior oblique projection of the cervical spine. True (anterior oblique <5 mrad; posterior oblique <69 mrad)
Which one of the following structures is best demonstrated with an AP axial vertebral arch projection? Spinous processes-lumbar spine, Articular pillar-(lateral mass)-cervical spine, Zygopophyseal joints-thoracic spine, Cervicothoracic spine region. Articular pillar (lateral masses) of cervical spine.
What central ray angle must be used with the AP axial-vertebral arch projection? 20-30 degree caudal angle
What ancillary device should be placed behind the patient on the table top for a recumbent lateral projection of the thoracic spine when using computed radiography? lead mat or masking
Which skull positioning line is aligned perpendicular to the IR for a PA (Judd) projection for the odontoid process? Mentomeatal line (MML)
Which zygopophyseal joints are best demonstrated with a LPO position of the thoracic spine? right (upside)
How much rotation of the body is required for an oblique position of the thoracic spine from a true lateral position? 20 degrees from lateral
Created by: Mr. Massive
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