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Life Span Ch 19

Developmental Stages- Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Kohlberg

QuestionAnswer
What is a specific phase or period when the presence of a function or reasoning has its greatest effect on a specific aspect of development? Critical period of development
What kind of theories attempt to account for the reasons why people become who and what they are? Human development theories
What psychoanalytic theory believes that the changes that occur during development are driven by two internal biological forces? Freud's psychosexual development theory
What are the 5 stages of development according to Freud? Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, Genital (Here's an acronym to help remember Freud's stages: Ordinary Aging Prolongs Lon- Gevity)
What age groups are included in the Infancy stage of development? 0-18 months
What age groups are included in the Early Childhood Infancy stage of development? 18 months to 3 years
What age groups are included in the Preschool stage of development? 3-5 years
What age groups are included in the Childhood stage of development? 6-12 years
What age groups are included in the Adolescence stage of development? 12 -19 years
During what stage according to Freud's theory does the child's sexual urges reawaken, and social activities begin to occur outside the family? During the Genital stage = adolescence 12-19 years
During which of Freud's stages are the sexual urges from the earlier phallic stage become repressed and channeled into productive activities that are socially acceptable? Latent stage = Childhood 6-12 years
What are Erikson's Eight Stages of Development? Trust vs Mistrust, Independence vs Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs Guilt, Industry vs Inferiority, Identity vs Role Confusion, Intimacy vs Isolation, Generativity vs Self-Absorbtion and Stagnation, Ego Integrity vs Despair
Who expanded Freud's theory to a psychosocial model that covered the whole life span? Erikson
According to Erikson, in which stage does a child grapple with the ability to trust others? Trust vs. Mistrust = Infancy 0-18 montsh
According to Erikson, in which stage does a child develop self control and independence? Independence vs Shame and doubt = Toddler 18 months to 3 years
According to Erikson, in which stage is a child highly imaginative? Initiative vs Guilt = Preschool 3-5 years
According to Erikson, in which stage is a child involved in task and activities? Industry vs Inferiority = Childhood 6-12 years
According to Erikson, in which stage does an individual deal with sexual maturity and ask, "who am I?" Identity vs Role Confusion = Adolescence 12 -19 years
According to Erikson, at what stage does a person develop a sense of Identity and deepen their capacity to love others and care for them? Intimacy vs Isolation
According to Erikson, what stage occurs during middle adult years? Generativity vs Self Absorbtion
During which of Erikson's stages do people reflect or their lifetime with either a sense of accomplishment or a sense of despair? Ego Integrity vs Despair
During which of Erikson's stages does a person struggle with losses while being challenged to adjust and continue to live a rich and full life? Ego Integrity vs Despair
Who developed cognitive theory of development that describes children's intellectual organization and how they see the world through four different periods? Jean Piaget
What are the four periods of Development in Piaget's theory? Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations.
During which of Piaget's periods does a child move from reflexive activities to simple repetitive actions? Sensorimotor period = Infancy 0-18 months
During which of Piaget's periods does a child begin thinking using symbols? Preoperational period
During which of Piaget's periods does a child begin to employ logical thinking? Concrete Operations period = Childhood 6-12 years
During which of Piaget's periods does a child begin abstract thinking? Formal Operations period = Adolescence 12-19 years
Who expanded on Piaget's theory by adding the development of moral reasoning? Lawrence Kohlberg
According to Kohlberg at what level does a child make moral judgments based on a punishment and obedience orientation? Preconventional level
According to Kohlberg at what level does a child make moral decisions by thinking, "How can I avoid punishment?" Preconventional level
According to Kohlberg, at what level does an individual make moral decision mainly by adhering to social norms? Conventional level
According to Kohlberg, at which level do indiviuals make moral judgments based on principles that may break with social norms? Postconventional level
What are Maslow's needs listed from most basic to the highest level? Physiological, Safety and Security, Belonging, Self-Esteem, Self-Actualization
Which developmental theorist compared male and female personality development and highlighted the differences? Carol Gilligan
According to Carol Gilligan, what is the most important factor in successful female development? Attachment
According to Gilligan, how does a woman's moral dilemma change? From how to exercise their rights without interfering with the rights of others to "How to lead a moral life," which includes obligations to themselves, their families, and people in general.
According to which developmental theorist, assimilation and accommodation of new information is necessary to stimulate intellectual growth? Jean Piaget
Whose psychosocial theory consist of eight stages that require resolution of a conflict? Erikson
Which theorist would say that the achievement of developmental goals is affected by the social environment? Erikson
Defense mechanisms help to cope with anxiety is a concept from which theorist? Sigmund Freud
Which theorist would say that moral maturity is a central theme in all stages of development? Lawrence Kohlberg