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Winneconne Chapter 2 Soil Formation

Which of the following types of chemical weathering causes a karst landscape, such as caverns? Acids in Groundwater
How do lichens slowly break down a rock? By Chemical Weathering
A process by which softer, less weather-resistant rocks wear away leaving harder, more weather-resistant rock behind is called Differential Weathering
Small rocks weather more quickly then large rocks of the same volume because their surface area is Larger
The average weather condition in an area over a long period of time is called Climate
Chemical weathering is most rapid in areas that are warm and wet
What is the organic material formed in soil from the decayed remains of plants and animals called? Humus
The removal from soil of substances that can be dissolved is called Leaching
Soil that has a pH of 9 would be considered Basic
What is it called when you plow across the slope of hills? Contour plowing
The process of changing one steep field into a series of smaller, flatter fields is called... Terracing
The process of leaving old stalks to provide cover from rain in order to reduce water runoff and soil erosion is called no-till farming
What is it called when a farmer plants different crops in order to use less nutrients or different nutrients from the soil? Crop Rotation
Ice, wind, water, gravity, plants, and animals are all agents of Mechanical Weathering
If you increase the surface area of a rock, how will it affect the rate at which it weathers? It will weather more quickly
The proportion of different-sized particles in soil determines the soil's Texture
When oxygen in the air reacts with iron, the result is oxidation
Which soil conservation technique helps restore nutrients to the soil? Cover crop
Which soil conservation technique helps prevent erosion of sloping hills by heavy rains? Contour plowing
Which soil conservation technique helps prevent erosion of sloping hills by heavy rains? Contour Plowing
What is the soil's ability to hold nutrients and supply nutrients to a plant called? Soil Fertility
What is the movement by wind, water, or gravity of soil from one place to another called? Erosion
What is it called when farmers plant different crops because they will use different soil nutrients Crop Rotation
How does elevation affect the rate at which rock weathers? Look over pg 41 for the answer
Why is crop rotation important? Look over pg 51 for the answer
Explain why a single block of granite weathers much more slowly then 100 chunks of granite. Look over pg 39 for the answer
The grinding and wearing away of rock surfaces through the mechanical action of other rock or sand particles Abrasion
Rain, sleet, or snow that contains a high concentration of acids Acid Precipation
The process by which rocks break down as a resuly of chemical reactions Chemical Weathering
The breakdown of rock into smaller pieces by physical means Meachanical Weathering
A chemical reaction in which an element, such as iron, combines with oxygen to form an oxide oxidation
The process by which rock materials are broken down by the action of physical or chemical processes Weathering
These areas get some water from under the ground, but when it evaporates it leaves behind salts that can kill plants Deserts
Low soil temperatures and little rain cause soil formation to occur slowly. Because of the temperature, decomposition of plants and animals occurs slowly or stops, limiting the amount of humus in the soil. Arctic Climate
The heavy rain leaches nutrients from the topsoil. Crops can be grown year-round because of the warm soil temperature, so plants are using nutrients from the soil year-round. Tropical Rain forests
Frequent changes in temperature in this climate lead to frost action, which allows thick, fertile soil to develop. The soils in this climate are some of the most productive in the world. Temperate forest and grasslands
The layer of rock beneath the soil bedrock
A rock formation that soil comes from parent rock
A mix of minerals, organic material, water, and air that plants can grow in soil
The arrangement of soil particles soil structure
Created by: wollermh