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PSY-108 Sec. 1 Ch. 8

Intro to Psychology Test Section 1 Chapter 8

Memory the capacity to encode, retain, store and retrieve information
Flashbulb Memory memory related to an emotionally arousing event
Encoding changing sensory input into a mental representation in the memory system
Explicit Memory requires a conscious attempt to recall memory
Storage the retention of encoded information in memory over time
Sensory Memory a modality-specific form of memory, involved in temporary preservation of sensory stimuli, serving as a buffer between the senses and short-term memory
Short-term Memory memory process which preserves recent information over relatively brief intervals, of limited capacity and information is stored for only a short length of time without rehearsal
Spacing Effect phenomenon in which we learn better when our rehearsal is distributed over time
Serial Position Effect states you are moke likely to remember the beginning and end information more than the middle
Semantic Encoding general memories that involve general knowledge of the world, including facts. processing of meaning, particularly the meaning of words
Retrieval the process and recovery of a stored item from memory
Rehearsal refers to the cognitive process involving the repetition of an item in order to maintain it in short-term memory
Recall in memory, the active retrieval of information
Recognition in memory, the process of identifying presented information as familiar and having been experienced before
Relearning Another means of remembering is through relearning. Relearned information may return quickly, even if it hasn't been used for many years. For example:Relearning a language not spoken since schooldays. Riding a bike after not using one since childhood
Retroactive Interference occurs when information works backwards to interfere with earlier information - just as a retroactive pay raise given in July might work backwards to influence pay days from January to June.
Proactive Interference occurs when current information is lost because it is mixed up with previously learned, similar information
Long-term memory enduring memories that retain and preserve information for later retrieval over long periods.
Working Memory a flexible memory system used for reasoning and language comprehension, that is comprised of the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad and central executive
Automatic Processing : what psychologists call processing of information that guides behaviour, but without conscious awareness, and without interfering with other conscious activity that may be going on at the same time
Effortfull Processing individuals use effort and attention as they encode information. This is generally done through strategy use
Visual Encoding processing of images
Acoustic Encoding processing of sounds
Mnemonics techniques that improve memory, often through using existing familiar information (e.g. imagery) during the encoding of new information to aid later retrieval and access. See method of loci
Chunking combining individual letters or numbers into larger meaningful units
Iconic Memory a fleeting photographic memory, we can register an exact representation of a scene and we can recall any part of it in amazing detail; only fo a very short time
Echoic Memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attenetion is elsewhere, sounds or words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Amnesia a significant loss of memory as a result of brain damage or psychological trauma
Implicit Memory retention independent of conscious recollection
Explicit Memory memory of the facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
Priming a phenomenon whereby previous exposure to a word or situation, improves implicit memory and increases the activation of associated thoughts or memories
Mood Congruent Memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent to one's current good or bad mood
Misinformation Effect incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event
Created by: mmb191