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3209 definitions 1

exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Nursing (as defined by ANA) protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, & pop.
registered nurse through completion of an associate degree or baccalaureate degree program
continuing education involves formal, organized educational programs offered by universities, hospitals, state nurses associations, professional nursing organizations, and educational and health care institutions
in-service education instructions or training provided by a health care agency or institution; designed to increase knowledge, skills, and competencies of nurses and other health care employees
advanced practice nurse (APN) generally the most independently functioning nurse; has a master's degree in nursing; advanced education in pharmacology and physical assessment, and certification and expertise in a specialized area of practice
clinical nurse specialist (CNS) an APN who is an expert clinician in a specialized area of nursing; speciality may be a setting, population, type of care, or a disease
nurse practitioner provides health care to a group of clients, usually in an outpatient, ambulatory care, or community-based setting
certified nurse-midwife (CNM) an RN who is also educated in midwifery and is certified by the American College of Nurse-Midwivesprovide independent care for women during normal pregnancy, labor, and delivery as well as care for the newborn
certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) an RN with advanced education in a nurse anesthesia accredited program; provide surgical anesthesia under the guidance and supervision of an anesthesiologist
nurse educator works primarily in schools of nursing, staff development departments of health care agencies, and client education departments
nurse administrator manages client care and the delivery of specific nursing services within a health care agency
nurse researcher investigates problems to improve nursing care and to further define and expand the scope of nursing practice
professional organization deals with issues of concern to those practicing in the profession
National League of Nursing NLN; advances excellence in nursing education to prepare nurses to meet the needs of a diverse population in a changing healthcare environment; sets standards for excellence and innovation in nursing education
International Council of Nurses ICN, objectives parallel those of the ANA; promotion national associations of nurses, improving standards of nursing pracitce, seeking a higher status for nurses, and providing an international power base for nurses
professional standards review organizations (PSROs) review the quality, quantity, and cost of hospital care (created by federal government)
utilization review committees (UR) review the admissions, diagnostic testing, and treatments provided by physicans who cared for clients receiving Medicareintent was to identify and eliminate overuse of diagnostic and treatment services
prospective payment system (PPS) eliminated cost-based reimbursement; one of the most significant factors that influenced payment for health care
diagnosis related groups (DRGs) 468; group inpatient hospital services for Medicare; each group had fixed reimbursement amount with adjustments based on case severity, rural/urban/regional costs; and teaching costs
capitation the providers received a fixed amount per client or enrollee of a health care plan; aim is to build a payment plan for select diagnoses or surgical procedures that consists of best standards of care
resource utilization groups (RUGs) used in long term care; like DRGs
managed care health care systems in which there is administrative control over primary health care services for a defined population
integrated delivery networks (IDNs) include a set of providers and services organized to deliver a continuum of care to a population of clients at a capitated cost in a particular setting
primary care health promotion is a major theme; where clients receive preventative care; schools, physician offices, occupational health clinics and nursing centers
acute care also called secondary and tertiary care; more costly
work redesign allows more services to be available on nursing units, thus minimizing hte need to transfer and transport clients across multiple diagnostic and treatment areas
case management model of care a case manager (usually nurse or social worker) coordinates the efforts of all disciplines to acheive the most efficient and appropriate plan of care for the client; focuses on discharge planning
Discharge planning begins the moment the client is admitted to a health care facility; nurse plays a large role
critical pathway multidisciplinary treatment plan that outlines the treatments or interventions clients need to have while in the hospital fora specific condition or procedure
restorative care goal is to help individuals regain maximal functional status and to enhance quality of life through promotion of independence and self-care
home care provision of medically related professional and paraprofessional services and equipment to clients and families in their homes for health maintainance, education, illness prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, palliation and rehab
Rehabilitation restores a person to the fullest physical, mental, social, vocational, and economic potential possible
extended care facility provided intermediate medical, nursing or custodial care for clients recovering from acute illness or clients with chronic illnesses or disabilities
skilled nursing facility offers skilled care from a licensed nursing staff
Minimum Data Set (MDS) part of the RAI (Resident Assessment Instrument for nursing home) resident's background, hearing/talking/vision patterns; function and problems; behavior/mood; conditions; disease; meds and treatments
Respite Care a service that provides short-term relief or time off for persons providing home care to an ill, disabled, or frail older adult
Adult Day Care Centers provide a variety of health and social services to specific client populations who live alone or with family in the community
Hospice system of family centered care that allows clients to live and remain at home with comfort, independence, and dignity while easing the pains of terminal illness
nursing sensitive outcomes client outcomes that are directly related to nrusing care; have a major effect on client safety and quality of care
client-centered care 7 dimensions that most effect clients' experiences with health care: respect values/preferences & expressed needs; coordinate and integrate care; inform, communication and educate; physical comfort; emotional support; involve family & friends; transition
nursing informatics combines the best of computer science and information science with nursing science
data individually distinct pieces of reality; ex: blood pressure of a client
information when you organize, structure, or interpret data
knowledge develop when you combine and identify relationships between different pieces of information
electronic health record (EHR) replace traditional printed medical record and provides a comprehensive electronic record of client's medical problems, treatment, diagnostic procedures, and nursing care
globalization make services more accessible, understand the needs of different cultures; improves availability of health care
vulnerable populations children, women, and older are most threatened population by urbanization (increase of environmental hazards as cities become more dense)
health a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being; not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (as defined by WHO)
health behaviors (Positive) activities related to maintaining, attaining or regainined good health and preventing illness: exercise, immunization, good diet(Negative) harmful or potentially harmful to health: smoking, drugs, poor diet
health belief model addresses the relationship between a person's beliefs and behaviorsprovides a way of understanding and predicting how client will behave in relation to their health and how they will comply with health therapies
health promotion model directed at increasing a client's level of well-being; focus on 1individual characteristics and experiences 2behavior-specific knowledge & affect 3behavioral outcomes
basic human needs model extent to which basic needs are met is a major factor in determining a person's level of health
holistic health model create conditions that promote optimal health; consider clients the ultimate experts regarding their own health and respect their subjective experience as relevant in maintaining health
Primary Prevention true prevention; precedes disease or dysfunction and is applied to patients considered physically and emotionally healthy; health education programs; immunizations; fitness activities
Secondary Prevention focus on individuals who are experiencing health problems or illnesses and who are at risk for developing complications or worsening conditions; directed at diagnosis and prompt interventions; in hospitals or homes; screening to detect
Tertiary Prevention defect or disability is permanent and irreversible; minimize the effects of long-term disease or disability by intervention directed at preventing complications and deterioration
risk factor any situation, habit, social or environmental condition, phsiological or psychological condition, developmental or intellectual condition or spiritual or other variable that increases the vulnerability of an individual or group to an illness or accident
health behavior change understand the process of change to help patients do so; (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance stage)
illness state in which a person's physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminshed or impaired compared with previous experience
acute illness short duration and is severe
chronic illness persists (usually longer than 6 months); can also affect function in any dimension
illness behavior how people monitor their bodies; define and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions; and use the health care system; when they are ill
caring universal phenomenon influencing the ways in which people think, feel, and behave in relation to one another
Transcultural (Madeleine Leininger perspective); concept of care as the essence and central, unifying and dominant domain that distinguishes nursing from other health disciplines
transformative relationship between nurse and client; the caring moment influences both the nurse and client for better or worse
ethic of care concerned with relationships between people and with a nurse's character and attitude toward others
presence a person-to-person encounter conveying a closeness and a sense of caring; "being there"
comforting involved in touch; nurse reaches out to client to communicate concern and support
spirituality defined as an awareness of one's inner self and a sense of connection to a higher eing, nature, or to some prupose greater than oneself
self-transcendence belief that there is a force outside of and greater than the person
connectedness with oneself (intrapersonally); with others and the environment (interpersonally); and with God, the unseen or a higher power (transpersonally)
atheist do not believe in the existence of Go
agnostic believe that there is no known ultimate reality
spiritual well-being concept with 2 dimensions; vertical supports the transcendent relationship between a person and God or higher power; horizontal describes relationship and connection with others
faith cultural or institutional religion
hope brought by spirituality and faith; attitude of something to live for and look forward to
spiritual distress impaired ability to experience and integrate meaning and purpose in life through connectedness with self, others, art, music, literature, nature and/or power greater than oneself
appraisal how people interpret the impact of the stressor on themselves, of what is happening, and what they are able to do about it
trauma if symptoms of stress persist beyond the duration of the stressor
fight-or-flight response to stree arousal of the sympathetic nervous system; reaction prepares a person for aaction by increasing heart rate; diverting blood from the intestines to the brain and striated muscles; and increasing blood pressure, respiratory rate, and blood glucose levels
general adaptation syndrome (GAS) a three stage reaction to stress, alarm reaction, resistance stage and the exhaustion stage
endorphins hormones that act on the mind like morphine and opiates, produce a sense of well being and reduce pain; secreted by hypothalamus
alarm reaction rising hormone levels result in increase blood volume; blood glucose levels; epinephrine and norepinephrine amounts, heart rate, blood flow to muscles; oxygen intake and mental alertness
exhaustion stage body is no longer able to resist the effects of the stressor and body has depleted energy necessary to maintain adaptation; body cannot defend itself
resistance stage body stabilizes and responds in an opposite manner to the alarm reaction; hormone levels, heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac output return to normal and the body repairs damage that has occurred
primary appraisal evaluate an event for its personal meaning
secondary appraisal if stress is present; focuses on possible coping strategies; balancing factors contribute to restoring equilibrium
coping person's effort to manage psychological stress
ego-defense mechanism purpose is to regulate emotional distress and thus give a person protection from anxiety and stress; helps a person cope with stress indirectly
distress damaging stress
eustress stress that protects health
post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when trauma occurs its effects will sometimes last well after the traumatizing event ends; begins with an acute stress disorder
acute stress disorder begins with a person experiencing, witnessing, or being confronted with a traumatic event and responding with intense fear, helplessness or horro
flashbacks recurrent and intrusive recollections of the event
developmental crises a crises associated with changing developmental levels
situational crises a crises associated with a new developmental stage such as marriage, birth of a child or retirement
visible culture easily seen; dress, etc..
invisible culture less easily seen; value-belief system
subculture represent various ethnic, religious, and other groups with distinct characteristics from the dominant culture
ehtnicity a shared identity related to social and cultural heritage such as values, language, geographical space and racial characteristics; feel a common sense of identity
emic worldview the insider or native perspective of any intercultural encounter
etic worldview the outsider perspective of any intercultural encounter
enculturation socialization into one's culture as a child
acculturation process of adapting to and adopting a new culture
assimilation results when an individual gradually adopts and incorporates the characteristics of the dominant culture
biculturalism multiculturalism; occurs when an individual identifies equally with two or more cultures
cultural backlash occurs when an individual rejects a new culture because experience with a new or different culture is extremely negative
transcultural nursing comparative study of cultures to undertand similarities and differences across human groups
culturally congruent care goal of transcultural nursing; care that fits the person's valued life patterns and set of meanings
culturally competent care ability of a nurse to bridge cultural gaps in caring, work with cultural differences and enable clietns and families to achieve meaningful and supportive caring
ethnocentrism tendency to hold one's own way of life as superior to others
cultural imposition use own values and lifestyles as the absolute guide in dealing with clients and interpreting their behaviors
Hmong refugees, originated from the mountainous region of Laos, believe that epilepsy or seizure disorder is caused by wandering of the soul
naturalistic practitioners attribute illness to natural, impersonal, and biological forces that causes alteration in the equilibrium of the human body; emphasizes use of naturalistic modalities including herbs, chemicals, heat, cold, massage and surgery
personalistic practitioners believe that an external agent (can be human or nonhuman) causes health and illness
Culture-bound syndromes illnesses that are specific to one culture ex: hwa-byung (korean women overwhelmed with financial and caregiving burden of their families/inlaws, etc.. experience fatigue, insomnia, heat, panic, etc..)
rites of passage significant social markers of changes in a person's life; provides a view of the cultural meanings and epressions relevant to these transitions
parteras attend childbirth in Mexicans
Hilots attend childbirth; Filipinos
Ethnohistory significant historical experiences of a particular groupex: Great Depression with older Americans
fictive nonblood kin
bilineal both mother's and father's side of the family; kinship
patrilineal kinship limited to the father side
matrilineal kinship limited to the mother side
Sabbath Jewish; refrain from using electrical appliances
kosher diet that avoids meat from carnivors, pork products and fish without scales or fins; Jewish
Created by: epedroza