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Bone Study I

Intro forensic bone study

The study of the bones of the skeleton, including their names, placement, articulations with other bones, visible features, and so forth Osteology
The study of dentition; this entails the recognition of the deciduous and permanent teeth as well as their placement in the mouth, their major features, and the variations seen in persons of different ancestry Odontology
The position of the body, either standing or lying, with the arms arranged straight along the side and the palms of the hands facing forward. Legs are extended straight, with the feet arranged as though they were flat on the ground (as standing) Standard Anatomical Position
The segment of bone that is the closest to the articulation point of the body, closest to the point of attachment Proximal
Segment of bone that is farthest from the articulation point Distal
Up; point or region lying above another point or region Superior
Down; a point or region lying below another point or region Inferior
Point or region lying closest to the midline of the body Medial
Point or region lying away from the midline of the body Lateral
Front; point or region lying closest to the front of the body anterior
Back; Point or region lying closest to the back of the body Posterior
Plane that aligns the lower border of the eye with the upper border of the ear opening Frankfort Plane, Horizon
Plane, cutting through the body from front to back, that divides it into left and right parts Sagittal
Plane, at right angles to the sagittal plane, that divides the body into front and back parts Coronal
Plane that divides the body at the waist into upper and lower sections Transverse
The skull Cranium
All bones below the skull Postcranium
Those bones making up the vertebral column and rib cage Axial Skeleton
Composed of the bones of the arms, legs, shoulders, and pelvis Appendicular Skeleton
The shaft of the bone, composes most of the total length Diaphysis
Each end of the diaphysis is a flare Metaphysis
Covers the metaphysis and caps the end of the bone Epiphysis
The smooth, exterior of all skeletal elements. Composed of a strong, well organized tissue called Lamellar bone that is laid down in thin layers that run parallel to the long axis of the bone Cortical Bone (Compact bone, Cortex)
Sponge-like interior structure that occurs in the metaphysis of long bones, within the ribs and small bones of the hands and feet, inside the bodies of the vertebrae, and between the inner and outer cortical surfaces of the cranial vault Cancellous bone
Primary function is to reinforce the bone without adding excess weight Cancellous bone
Internal structure, the opening that runs through the center of all bones and in life is filled with fatty tissues Medullary Cavity
Areas of bone that ossify first Primary centers of ossification
Areas of bone that ossify second and eventually will unite with the primary centers, forming a complete bone Secondary centers of ossification
The part of the tooth that is visible above the gum Crown
White covering over crown Enamel
When enamel is peaked in some teeth into points cusp
The part of the tooth that is embedded in the jaw; it is secured in place by a ligament that prevents it from becoming dislodged during chewing (mastication) Root
Those parts of the teeth closest to the midline Mesial
Surfaces away from the midline (teeth) distal (teeth)
Toward the tongue, the inner parts of the tooth Lingual
Near lips, near cheeks, outer parts of the tooth Labial/ Buccal
The chewing surface of teeth Occlusal
Flat, chisel-like teeth in the front of the mouth that are easily visible when persons are smiling or talking, crown is wider than it is thick, one root (often lost postmortem) Incisors
The pointed teeth next to the second incisor; these single-cusped teeth also have a single root: however, it is so long that it brackets either side of the nasal opening, anchoring it securely in the jaws Canines
bicuspids, usually have two cusps and one or two (usually jointed) roots Premolar
Most distal teeth; square to rectangular chewing teeth found at the rear of the mouth. The upper ones generally have three roots while the lower ones have 2; these are often fused in both the upper and lower third Molar
Composed of five teeth per quadrant (20 teeth: two incisors, one canine, and two molars, light yellowish crown, smaller Deciduous teeth
Composed of eight teeth per quadrant (32 teeth): two incisors, one canine, two premolars, and three molars, white crown, larger Permanent teeth
Extra teeth; appear as small peg like structures usually located between normal teeth Supernumerary
Teeth that never erupt Congenitally Missing Teeth
Created by: religget