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geography test 2

Balkization the contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries
centrifugal forces forces that tend to divide a country
centripetal forces forces that tend to unite or bind a country together
colonialism the expansion and perpetuation of an empire
confederation a form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose
devolution the delegation of legal authority
enclaves any small and relatively homogenous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region
exclave a bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state
federalism a system of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government
frontier an area where borders are shifting and weak and where peoples of different cultures or nationalities meet and lay claim to the land
gerrymandering the designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular political party
law of the sea laws establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources
microstate a state or territory that is small in both population and size
nationalism a sense of national pride to such an extent of exalting one nation above all others
perforated state a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state
physical boundaries political boundaries that correspond with prominent physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers
reapportionment the process of a reallocation of electoral seats to determine territories
sovereignty supreme or independent political power
territorial dispute any dispute over land ownership
theocracy a state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders
agglomeration grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources
core, national or global regions where economic power, in terms of wealth, innovation, and advanced technology, is concentrated
deglomeration the dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration
ecotourism a form of tourism, based on the enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders, that aims to provide an experience of nature or culture in an environmentally sustainable way
fast world areas of the world, usually the economic core, that experience greater levels of connection due to high-speed telecommunications and transportation technologies
fordism system of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford.
gross domestic product the total value of goods and service produced within the boarders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year
gross national product the total value of good and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year
maquiladoras cities where U.S. firms have factories just outside the United States/Mexican border in areas that have been specially designated by the Mexican government. in such areas, factories cheaply assemble goods for export back into the United States.
outsourcing - sending industrial processes out for external production. The term outsourcing increasingly applies not only to traditional industrial functions, but also to the contracting of service industry functions to companies to overseas locations, where operating costs remain relatively low
periphery Countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. The world economic periphery includes Africa (except for South Africa), parts of South America, and Asia.
productivity a measure of the goods and services produced within a particular country
regionalization the process by which specific regions acquire characteristics that differentiate them from others within the same country. in economic geography, regionalization involves the development of dominant economic activities in particular regions
slow world the developing world that does not experience the benefits of high-speed telecommunications and transportation technology.
speciality goods goods that are not mass-produced but rather assembled individually or in small quantites
world cities a group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
biotechnology a form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
commodity chains a linked system of processes that gather resources, convert them into goods, package them for distribution, disperse them, and sell them on the market
desertification the process by which formerly fertile lands become increasingly arid, unproductive, and desert-like.
feed lots places where livestock are concentrated in very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to factory farms
fertile crescent area located in the crescent shaped zone near the southeastern Mediterranean coast (including Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey), which was once a lush environment and one of the first hearths of domestication and thus agricultural activity.
food security people's ability to access sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.
mechanization in agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines.
pastoralism a type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
plantation a large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop.
salinzation process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile.
sustainability a set of policies or practices by which societies can ensure that the people of the future have the same access to resources and thus the same economic and environmental opportunities as people living today.
swidden land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method.
transhumance the movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer.
urban sprawl the process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
Comercial Livestock ranching, transhumance ( seasonal movement of livestock), and dairying hearts for milking. (1 of the 5 types of commercial agriculture.)
commercial grown farming wheat, corn, rice. Meat is more valuable, so much of the grain crop goes to feed livestock. (1 of the 5 types of commercial agriculture.)
Tropical Plantations sugarcane and coffee. Usually has some level of foreign trade, and is almost always exported. (1 of the 5 types of commercial agriculture.)
Aquaculture seafood and fish hatcheries. (1 of the 5 types of commercial agriculture.)
mixed and speciality crop farming speciality crops. Usually relatively small yields. Diversification measure for larger farms. (1 of the 5 types of commercial agriculture. )
primary activities harvesting raw materials (ranching, farming, mining) ((economic development model))
secondary activities assembly of raw materials (manufacturing, textiles) ((economic development model))
tertiary activities exchanging goods (retail, restaurant) ((economic development model))
quaternary activities research and development (teaching, tourism, exchanging knowledge) ((economic development model))
quinary activities higher level decision making. (really a part of quaternary activities) ((economic development model))
East/ West Divide For most of the 1900s this was the divide. Free West - Capitalism and USA & East - Communism & Soviet Union
North/ South Divide Norther Hemisphere are the developed, wealthier countries Southern Hemisphere are the undeveloped, poorer countries
Created by: mikaylenkay
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