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Ch 18 Body Mechanics

Body Mechanics Mobility

Four types of bones short long flat irregular
union of 2 or more bones joint
what is the primary function of the joint? to move
a small fluid-filled sac that provides a cushion at friction points in the joints bursa
striated muscles surrounded by a connective tissue sheath skeletal muscles
fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone tendon
connects bone to cartilage ligament
fibrous connective tissue; acts as a cushion cartillage
functions of a bone 1) provide a scaffolding to support the body 2) gives shape to the body and support the internal organs and skin 3) provide places for ligaments and tendons to attach to facilitate movement
functions of muscle 1) can stretch 2) provide movement 3) stabilize joints 4) produce heat 5) maintain posture
1) bone mass loss may lead to osteoperosis (women) 2) loss of bone density predisposes the elderly to fractures changes occurring with aging
principles of body movement for nursing: - one of the most common injuries in health care workers lower back strength
principles of body movement for nursing: - get help whenever possible; ask patient to help if able. what else? use your leg muscles, bend and flex your knees
name two of the principle of body movement for nurses 1) keep feet approx shoulder width apart 2) avoid jerking and sudden pulling movements
when moving and lifting patients... 1) keep elbows close and work close to your body 2) raise bed to your waist level 3) ask for help!!
when moving and lifting patients... pulling actions require less effort that pushing!!!
name two basic principles of the body movement and alignment for patients 1) maintain correct anatomic position 2) change position frequently
pressure ulcers are also known as derubitis or bed sores
2 main factors in developing of pressure ulcers ********** 1) pressure 2) shearing force
occurs when pressure on the skin causes a local area of tissue (necrosis) pressure ulcers
occurs most often between bony prominence and an external surface pressure ulcers
applied downward and forward on tissue beneath the skin shearing force
how to prevent ulcers range of motion
what are the commonly used for nursing diagnoses 1) risk for injury 2) impaired physical mobility 3) risk for impaired skin integrity 4) impaired walking
planning - after patient dangles feet, monitor the following: 1) orthostatic hypotension 2) dizziness 3) nausea or vomiting
Positioning: accomplishes four objectives - 1) provides comfort 2) relieves pressure on bony premises and other parts relieving patient's risk of developing bed sores 3) prevents contractures and deformities and respiratory problems 4) improves circulation 3)
*supine supine with the HOB elevated 60 to 90 degrees Fowler's position
*supine supine with the HOB elevated 30 to 60 degrees Semi- Fowler's position
*supine Supine with the HOB elevated 15 to 30 degrees Low Fowler's position
*supine Supine with knees flexed and feet flat on the bed; used for many procedures and examinations dorsal recumbent position
*supine feet in stirrups and legs spread farther apart; used in pelvic exams dorsal lithotomy position
*side-lying lateral alleviates pressure on bony prominences of the back patient lying on her side
*side-lying lateral removes pressure from shoulder and hip; easier for patients oblique side-lying position
*side-lying lateral variation of side-lying. used for rectal examination, administering enemas or inserting suppositories for an unconscious patient Sim's position *******
*prone patient lying face down
*prone often used for patients with spinal cord injury; not generally well tolerated
*prone knee-chest position: face down with chest, knees and elbows resting on bed. used for rectal examinations
common positioning devices pillows boots or splints footboards, high top sneakers troncanter rolls
*common positioning devices used to support bodies or extremities pillows
*common positioning devices maintain dorsi flexion boots or splints
*common positioning devices maintain dorsiflexion footboards, high top sneakers
*common positioning devices used to immobilize an extremity, provide support, and maintain body alignment sandbags
*common positioning devices help prevent contractures and prevent dorsiflexion of the wrist hand rolls
*common positioning devices enhance patient mobility, provide patient safety and support patient's back trapeze bars, side rails, bed boards
*moving the patient in bed using a lift sheet - requires at least 2 ppl standing on opposite side of bed - both face the bed and use the sheet to move the patient up in the bed - moving patient performed as a coordinated effort - patient is lifted and moved, not dragged
*moving the patient in bed if the patient is unable to bend at the waist or sit on a chair logrolling
*moving the patient in bed logrolling - turning the patient as a single unit - body alignment maintained at all times - used to change bed linen, can be performed w or w/out a lift sheet - leave a pillow under the patient's head
lifting and transferring - patients may transfer independently or require different levels of assistance - always dangle a patient at bedside before transferring to a wheelchair and observe for dizziness or nausea
lifting and transferring -remember to lock the wheels!
things to remember when moving patients 1) determine how much help you will need to move or transfer the patient 2) always ask for help 3) make sure wheels on bed are locked 4) use a transfer device when possible 5) dangle before ambulating 6) use gait belt when ambulating patients
list transfer devices pull or lift sheets mechanical lifts roller boards gait belts
Created by: jekjes
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