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7th Sci. CELL TEST

Mitochondria organelle that breaks down molecules for energy for the cell
Endoplasmoic Reticulum helps carry proteins from one part of the cell to another. (smooth ER has no robosomes)
Ribosomes organelle on which proteins are made
Golgi bodies body organelle that packages and sends out molecules
Chloroplasts contains chlorophyll- helps plants make their own food through photosynthesis (plant cells only)
Vacuoles storage organelle for food or water (small in animal cells; very large in plant cells)
Lysosomes organelle that removes waste or cell parts
Nucleus the control center of the cell
What are the three main points of the Cell Theory? * All living things are composed of cells *cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things *All cells are produced from other cells
Who is Robert Hooke? What did he see through his microscope? Robert Hooke was one of the first people to observe cells. He saw a thin slice of cork through his compound microscope.
Who is Anton van Leeuwenhook? What did he see through his microscope? Anton van Leeuwenhook was a man who found tiny moving organisms in water. He was the first to observe single-celled organisms in pond water. (simple microscope)
cells the basic units of structure and function in living things
An instrument that makes small objects look larger is a(n)? microscope
cell theory a widely explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
cell membrane controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell
Organelles tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within the cell
Cell wall surrounds plant cell' gives shape and support to the cell
cytoplasm contains cell materials
Selectively Permeable means that some substances can pass through the membrane
Pores small openings that molecules pass through to the cells membrane
Passive Transport the movement of materials in or out of the cell without the need for energy
Diffusion process by which molecules move from an area of high concentration to low concentration. diFFusion=stuFF *the primary method that small molecules can move across the cell membrane
Osmosis the diffusion of water molecules across a cell membrane from one area of concentration.
Equilibrium the point at which there is an equal amount of molecules throughout
Homeostasis the ability to maintain an even internal and external environment
Active Transport used to move larger molecules across the membrane OR to move molecules from a low concentration to high concentration.(large size molecules)
What are the two types of Active Transport? transport proteins and transport by engulfing
Transport Proteins "pick up" molecules and carry them in or out of the cell using their own energy
Engulfing The cell membrane surrounds and engulfs a particle. Once it is engulfed, the cell membrane completely wraps around it and forms a vesicle.
Endocytosis The process of bringing particles INTO the cell
Exocytosis The process of getting particles OUT of the cell
Photosynthesis The process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food.
autotroph an organism that makes it own food
heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food
pigment a colored chemical compound that absorbs light
Stomata small openings on the undersides of the leaves where carbon dioxide enters the plant. (singular-stoma)
Aerobic an organism that requires oxygen
Anaerobic an organism that does not require oxygen
Alcoholic Fermentation occurs when yeast and some other single-celled organisms break down sugars. Alcohol is one of the products.
Nucleolus part of the nucleus where RNA is made
Lactic Acid Fermentation takes place at times in your body
How do substances get across a membrane using either passive or active transport? through pores
What are the two types of passive transport? diffusion and osmosis
How do passive and active transport differ from eachother? PASSIVE *does not require energy *small molecules *high to low concentration ACTIVE *energy is required *large molecules *low to high concentration
What are the reactants of photosynthesis? the products? The reactants are carbon dioxide and water. The products are a sugar and oxygen.
Name the balanced equation for photosynthesis. 6 CO2 + 6 H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
What is DNA? DNA is the heredity material that makes up chromosomes and genes. DNA is the code of an organism's information. DNA is copied and passed on to new cells.
What things is DNA responsible for in an organism? DNA is responsible for controlling the activity of cells with it's coded instructions
What cells have DNA? Every cell contains DNA (except mature red blood cells)
Who first saw DNA? How was this seen? Rosalind Franklin first saw DNA using an x-ray machine
Who was given credit for creating the model of DNA? James Watson and Francis Crick (they won the Nobel Peace Prize)
Describe the appearance of DNA. DNA looks like a twisted zipper or a spiral staircase.
What are the four nitrogen bases of DNA? Which ones pair up? Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) Thymine (T) A-T G-C
What makes up the sides of DNA? Sugar molecules and phosphate groups alternate to form the sides of the DNA molecule
What are the four ways that RNA and DNA differ? *RNA* uracil-1strand-shorter-can leave nucleus *DNA* thymine-2 strands-longer-can't leave nucleus
Where is RNA made? RNA is made in the nucleolus
What are the two types of RNA and what are their specific functions? mRNA- moves a copy of the code out of the nucleus and attaches to ribosomes. tRNA- picks up amino acids and brings them to the ribossomes where they bond to create a protein molecule.
What are proteins made up of? Where do they get these parts? Proteins are made from amino acids. The order of the amino acids determines the type of protein.
Where are proteins made? amino acids are found in the cytoplasm
What are proteins used for in an organism? Proteins are used for energy, cell replication enzymes
How does a cell know how to make a protein? The cell knows how to make a protein through DNA
What are the three main stages of the cell cycle? Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis
What three things happen during interphase? *the cell grows to its full size *DNA replicates *organelles double *cell prepares to divide
What types of cells undergo mitosis? All body cells undergo mitosis
What are the four stages/phases of mitosis? Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
In what process are 2 new nuclei created? mitosis
What happens during prophase? *chromatin thikens and condenses to form chromasomes *centrioles begin moving to opposite sides of the cell * spindle fibers begin to form from the centrioles *nuclear membrane begins to break down
What happens during metaphase? "middle phase" *entire nuclear membrane has broken down *chromosomes line up across the middle of the cell *spindle fibers attatch to the chromosomes at the centromere
What happens during anaphase? "away phase" *centromeres disappears so that the 2 chromatids separate *1 chromatid is pulled to one end of the cell by spindle fibers while the other chromatid is pulled to the other side
What is cytokinesis? the process by which 2 new cells are created by dividing the cytoplasm
What happens durung cytokinesis? -divides the cell from telophase into 2 new daughter cells
What is the role of RNA? to transfer a copy of the genetic code from the nucleus out into the cytoplasm to help the ribosomes make proteins.
What is a gene? A gene is a section of DNA on a chromosome that directs the creation of inherited traits or making of specific proteins.
What is a mutation? a permanent change in a gene or chromosome
Codon sets of three DNA bases
A phosphate, a sugar and a nitrogen base make up a________. nucleotide
Cells that contain a complete pair of chromosomes are called__________. diploid cells
Genome the complete set of organisms for the cell
Deletion when a base is left out
Insertion when an extra base is added in
Substitution when the incorrect base replaces the correct base
Who came up with the term "cells"? What does it mean? Robert Hooke-- it means "tiny rooms"
Repair enzymes their job is to patrol the DNA for mistakes
Mutagens things that cause mutations
Transcription when mRNA copies the DNA
Translation when a gene sequence is "read" to make a protein
cytokinesis the process of splitting a cell into two daughter cells
cell cycle the sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
interphase the period before cell division
Mitosis stage during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei. During mitosis, one copy of DNA is distrobuted into each of the two daughter cells.
centromere what holds together a chromosome
double rod structures are called ___________ chromosomes
cell plate what forms across the middle of the plant cell. plants have a cell plant because it's cell wall cannot squeeze together the same way that the cell membrane in animals can.
What are the two stages of photosynthesis? capturing the sun's enrgy and producing sugars
What happens during each stage of photosynthesis? In the first stage, plants capture energy from the sunlight. In the second stage, the cell uses the captured energy to produce sugars. The cell need two raw materials for this stage: water and carbon dioxide
How does an autotroph obtain energy from the sun? DIRECTLY
How does a heterotroph obtain energy from the sun? INDIRECTLY
What are the products of photosynthesis used for? Plant cell use some of the sugar for food. The cells break down the sugar molecules to release energy. This energy can be used to carry out the plants functions. CELLULOSE- used in cell wall for support
Created by: memsoccer1013