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Geography Term 2

Headland Hard, resistant rock that sticks out on beaches as the coastline erodes
Bay Places where soft rock has worn away
Why are bays sheltered? Once the bays recede far enough away from the original coastline the sea "focuses" on the headlands more
Process of headland erosion Cave: Notch cut into headland Arch: Back wall of cave eroded all the way through Stack: Top of arch gets too heavy and breaks Stump: Stack is eroded and might have collapsed
Wave cut platforms The sea erodes the coast in a process similar to waterfall retreat, leading to a mostly level stretch of land underwater.
Factors affecting coastal erosion Topography (steep or shallow coastline), Resistance of shoreline rocks, erosive force of daily currents/tides, frequency+intensity of high energy storms/abnormal events (hurricanes, tsunamis), frequency+intensity of tectonic events
Methods of Coastal Management (Soft Engineering) Beach Replenishment, growing vegetation, managed retreat
Methods of Coastal Management (Hard Engineering) Sea wall, wooden groynes, gabion baskets, Rip-rap, revetments
Beach replenishment Depositing sand from elsewhere onto the beach
Growing vegetation Absorbs some of the impact of waves and water, buffers waves
Managed retreat The relocation of things in danger from coastal erosion
Sea wall A long concrete or wooden barrier built at a cliff base, life span of ~75 years, socially reassuring
Groynes Wooden 'fences' built perpendicular to the coast, life span of ~25 years, slow longshore drift
Gabion baskets Mesh steel cages filled with rocks, similar effect to sea walls and groynes, Life span of 20-25 years
Rip rap/Rock armour Large boulders placed to form a sea wall
Revetments Slatted wooden/concrete structures at the base of a cliff
Disadvantages of coastal management Costly, mess with natural system and might have consequences worse than the initial problem, they're localised and might be problematic for other areas of the coast
Fjords Long narrow valleys with steep sides, created by glaciers, glacial valleys that go below sea level
Glacier types Continental, Valley, Mountainous
Snow line The altitude at which some snow remains year-round, varies from place to place
Where/how do glaciers form In high mountainous regions They flow out of icefields spanning several peaks or across a mountain range
Continental glaciers Antarctica, Greenland Deposits material as it moves (icebergs)
Valley glaciers Originating from mountain glaciers or ice fields, spill down into valleys Long, flowing beyond snow line, sometimes reaching sea level
Mountain glaciers High altitude, mountain ranges or icefields
Crevasses Glacier flows over rough surface Large cracks form in brittle ice Depth can be 30m+ and width can range from a few centimeters to 10+ meters Often covered/obscured by snow bridges Very dangerous to mountaineers
Striations Parallel grooves cut into bedrock by rock fragments stuck in the bottom of the glacier
U-shaped and hanging valleys Valleys formed due to glaciers U-shaped: large glaciers Hanging: Smaller glaciers that feed into larger ones
Cirque Amphitheater shaped Tarns Cut into rock where tarns are formed and ice flows out
Tarn Small lake occupying a rock basin in a cirque
Horn Pyramidal peak formed by 3+ arêtes
Arête The crest left behind after two adjacent glaciers erode the sides
Erratics Large 'out of place' boulders
Kettle lake A lake formed by buried glacial ice melting underground
Moraines Deposits of glacial tills at the end(terminal), sides(lateral), or middle(medial) of a glacier
Paternoster lake One of a series of glacial lakes connected by a single stream
Backwalls and Sidewalls Eroded sides of arêtes, horns, and cirques
Glaciers Slow moving rivers of ice
Types of Farming Arable (crops), Pastoral (Animals), Mixed (both)
Factors affecting farming Physical: Relief, climate, soil, aspect, drainage, rock/soil type Human: Distance from necessities, labor supply, machinery + technology, grants + subsidies, market price
Necessities of Arable farms Flat/gently sloping land Deep, fertile soil Not too dry or wet Warm climate Land suitable for machinery Sheltered land
Pastoral farms are possible with Steep slopes -> bad for machinery, good for sheep/goats Poor soils -> only enough for grasses and heather Cold, wet, climate Stronger winds
Commercial Agriculture For profit Large scale Few workers Lots of machinery/technology Sold at market One type of crop (monoculture) Cash crops Usually arable
Subsistence Agriculture For the farmer Little left over to sell Small scale Mixed farming (usually) Self-sufficient Labor intensive Less machines/technology Manpower
Intensive Agriculture Small area High output Massive inputs of capital and labor machines, technology Efficient Cost-effective
Extensive Agriculture Large area Less money Few farm workers
Hill sheep farming Pastoral Extensive Commercial Products: wool, lamb, mutton Hill has three parts: Fell (Top, sheep graze on open land), Intake (Middle, divided into fields by stone walls, drainage, fertilisers), Inbye (Bottom, Farmhouse + fertile soil)
Physical inputs of hill sheep farming Relief, Soils, climate, 200mm annual rainfall, short growing season
Human/economic inputs of hill sheep farming Difficult accessibility Market Subsidies + grants Little labor Fodder crops
Processes of hill sheep farming Dipping, lambing, fertilising, shearing
Outputs of hill sheep farming Profit, Wool fleeces, B&B money, tourism, lambs, profit to reinvest
Problems in hill sheep farming Foot & mouth disease Not always profitable Lamb prices fall + Machinery fuel and fodder prices rise Removal of subsidies by EU Fewer young people want to farm sheep
Orange Farming Arable Commercial Extensive From sea level to 200m above (not high altitudes) Low humidity is ideal Tropical/subtropical climate that have hot summers and mild winters More than 3-5 hours below/at 27ºF damages twigs and fruits Nitrogen fertilizer
Created by: koala25
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