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Oncology Test

QuestionAnswer
What is a substance, especially a drug, added to a prescription to assist in the action of the main ingredient? Adjuvant
What is treatment of a disease with a substance, especially a drug, that enhances the main ingredient? Adjuvant Therapy
What is a change in the structure and orientation of cells characterized by a loss of specialization and reversion to a more primitive form? Anaplasia
What is a class of antineoplastic drugs used to treat cancer? Antimetabolite
What is of or pertaining to a substance, procedure, or measure that prevents the proliferation of malignant cells? Antineoplastic
What is noncancerous and therefore not an immediate threat, even though treatment eventually may be required for health or cosmetic reasons; not life threatening? Benign
What is a neoplasm characterized by the uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells that tend to invade surrounding tissue and to metastasize to distant body sites? Cancer
What is a substance or agent that causes the development or increases the incidence of cancer? Carcinogen
What is a malignant neoplasm? Carcinoma
What is a premalignant neoplasm that has not invaded the basement membrane but shows cytologic characteristics of cancer? Carcinoma in situ
What is the use of chemical agents to destroy cancer cells on a selective basis? Chemotherapy
What is pertaining to being destructive to cells? Cytotoxic
What is a large nucleic acid molecule found principally in the chromosomes of the nucleus of a cell that is the carrier of genetic information? Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
What is a process in development in which unspecialized cells or tissues are systemically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic physical forms, physiologic functions, and chemical properties? Differentiation
What is enclosed in fibrous or membranous sheaths? Encapsulated
What is in radiology, the division of the total dose of radiation into small doses administered at intervals in an effort to minimize tissue damage? Fractionation
What is the possessing the ability to invade or penetrate adjacent tissue? Infiltrative
What is characterized by a tendency to spread, infiltrate, and intrude? Invasive
What is high-energy X-rays that possess the ability to kill cells or retard their growth? Ionizing radiation
What is an apparatus for accelerating charged subatomic particles used in radiotherapy, physics research, and the production of radionuclides? Linear accelerator
What is a surgical removal of only the tumor and the immediate adjacent breast tissue; a method of treatment for breast cancer when detected in the early stage of the disease? Lumpectomy
What is tending to become worse and cause death? Malignant
What is the the process by which tumor cells spread to distant parts of the body? Metastasis
What is a type of cell division that results in the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells? Mitosis
What is a growth of more than one type of neoplastic tissue? Mixed-tissue tumor
What is a method of application or a treatment method? Modality
What is an illness or an abnormal condition or quality? Morbidity
What is a change or transformation in a gene? Mutation
What is any abnormal growth of new tissue, benign or malignant? Neoplasm
What is a gene in a virus that has the ability to cause a cell to become malignant? Oncogene
What is the formation of a tumor? Oncogenesis
What is of or pertaining to papilla (nipplelike projection)? Papillary
What is a benign epithelial neoplasm characterized by a branching or lobular tumor? Papilloma
What is pertaining to a structure with a stalk? Pedunculated
What is a written plan or description of the steps to be taken in a particular situation, such as conducting research? Protocol
What is the emission of energy, rays or waves? Radiation
What is pertaining to the susceptibility of tumor cells to destruction by ionizing radiation? Radiocurable tumor
What is a tumor that resists the effects of radiation? Radioresistant tumor
What is a tumor that reacts favorably to radiation? Radioresponsive tumor
What is the treatment of disease by using X-rays or ganna rays? Radiotherapy
What is to exhibit again the symptoms of a disease from which a patient appears to have recovered? Relapse
What is the partial or complete disappearance of the symptoms of a chronic or malignant disease? Remission
What is a nucleic acid found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells that transmits genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm? Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
What is a malignant neoplasm of the connective and supportive tissues of the body, usually first presenting as a painless swelling? Sarcoma
What is pertaining to a carcinoma with a hard structure? Scirrhous
What is attached by a base rather than by a stalk or a peduncle? Sessile
What is the determination of distinct phases or periods in the course of a disease? Staging
What is a formative cell; a cell whose daughter cells may give rise to other cell types? Stem cell
What is a new growth of tissue characterized by progressive, uncontrolled proliferation (growth) of cells, the tumor may be localized or invasive, benign or malignant? Tumor
What is rough or warty? Verrucous
Ana- not, without
-blast embryonic stage of development
carcin/o cancer
chem/o pertaining to a chemical
cry/o cold
cyst/o bladder, sac, or cyst
epi- on, upon
fibr/o pertaining to fiber
meta- beyond, after
-oma tumor
onc/o swelling, mass, or tumor
papill/o resembling a nipple
-plasia formation or growth
-plasm living substance
radi/o radiation
sarc/o of or related to the flesh
scirrh/o hard
What is a neoplasm that does not invade other tissues or metastasize to other sites? Benign tumor
What is a neoplasm that can invade surrounding tissue and can metastasize to distant sites? Malignant tumor
What makes up the largest group of neoplasms? Carcinomas
What are solid tumors that originate from epithelial tissue which covers the external and internal body surfaces, the lining of vessels, body cavities, glands and organs? Carcinomas
What are less common than carcinomas? Sarcomas
Which tumors originate from supportive and connective tissue such as bone, fat, muscle and cartilage? Sarcomas
What arises in infection fighting organs such as lymphatic tissue? Lymphomas
What occurs in blood-forming organs such as the spleen and in bone marrow? Leukemias
Which cells function most like the parent tissue and are thus graded as the least malignant or grade 1? Well-Differentiated
What refers to the extent of disease and relative size of the tumor at the time of diagnosis? Staging
What is an internationally recognized system used for staging neoplasms? TNM staging classification system
What is examination of biopsied tissues, tumors, body fluids, and/or body secretions further evaluates the extent of the disease? Cytologic
What are biochemical indicators that a malignancy is present in the body when these molecules are detectable in any body fluids, particularly blood? Tumor markers
What imaging includes CT scans, MRIs, X-ray imaging, radioisotope scans, ultrasonography, use of tagged antibodies, angiography, and use of direct visualization? Oncologic
What is an uncontrollable factor that contributes to one's susceptibility to developing cancer? Heredity
What refers to the probability that an individual, over the course of his or her lifetime, will develop cancer or will die from cancer? Lifetime risk
What measures the strength of the relationship between risk factors and particular types of cancer? Relative risk
What is most common malignant tumor of the epithelial tissue that occurs most often on areas of the skin exposed to the sun? Basal cell carcinoma
What is a malignant tumor of the breast tissue? Breast cancer
What is the most common type of breast cancer that originates in the mammary ducts? Ductal carcinoma
Which cancer ranks second among cancer deaths in women? Breast Cancer
What is a malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi? Bronchogenic carcinoma
What is another name for Bronchogenic carcinoma? Lung cancer
What is the most common cancer-related death in both men and women? Lung cancer
What is a malignant tumor of the cervix? Cervical carcinoma
Which cancer is the most frequent in women from ages 30 - 50? Cervical cancer
What means it just sits there? Carcinoma in situ
What is used to detect early changes in cervical tissue that may indicate cervical cancer? Papanicolaou smear (Pap smear)
What is the presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine? Colorectal cancer
What is the third most common type of cancer in both men and women? Colorectal cancer
What malignant tumor of the inner lining of the uterus; also known as adenocarcinoma of the uterus? Endometrial carcinoma
What is a lymphoid tissue neoplasm that is typically malignant - beginning with a painless enlarged lymph node(s) abd progressing to anemia, weakness, fever and weight loss? Lymphoma
What is a rare malignant lesions that begin as soft purple-brown nodules or plaques on the feet and gradually spread, throughout the skin? Kaposi's sarcoma
Which cancer occurs most often in men and there is an increased incidence in individuals infected with AIDS? Kaposi's sarcome
What is a malignant skin tumor originating from melanocytes in preexisting nevi(moles), freckles, or skin with pigment; darkly pigmented cancerous tumor? Malignant melanoma
What is a highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system? Neuroblastoma
Which cancer most commonly occurs in the adrenal medulla, with early metastasis spreading widely to the liver, lungs, lymph nodes and bones? Neuroblastome
What is a precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth that are elevated gray-white or yellow-white leathery surfaced lesions have clearly defined borders? Oral leukoplakia
What is a malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occurring in women in their 50's? Ovarian carcinoma
What is a life-threating primary malignant neoplasm typically found in the head of the pancreas? Pancreatic cancer
What is a malignant growth within the prostate gland, creating pressure on the upper part of the urethra and is the leading cause of cancer death in men? Prostatic cancer
What test will be used to detect increased growth of the prostate? PSA blood test
What is a malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in adulthood? Renal cell carcinoma
What is a malignancy of the epithelial tissue which is a much faster growing cancer than basal cell carcinoma and has a greater potential for metastasis if not treated? Squamous cell carcinoma
What is a malignant tumor of the testicle that appears as a painless lump in the testicle and usually occurs in men under the age of 40? Testicular cancer
What is a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland that leads to dysfunction of the gland and thus inadequate or excessive secretion of the thyroid hormone? Thyroid cancer
What occurs in any structural region of the brain and may be malignant or benign? Intracranial tumors
What are tumors occurring as a result of metastasis from a primary site such as the lung or breast? Metastatic intracranial tumors
Which tumors that arise from gliomas or from the meninges are known as? Primary intracranial tumors
What is a malignant tumor of the kidney occurring predominately in childhood? Wilms' tumor
What are agents that are capable of changing the relationship between a tumor and the host are known as biologic response modifiers, these agents are used to strengthen the individual's immune responses? Immunotherapy
What is an advanced treatment procedure for skin cancer? Mohs surgery
What is used for diagnosing and staging cancers? Surgery
What are used to remove a piece of a tumor for examination and diagnosing? Incisional biopsies
What are used to remove the tumor aand a portion of normal tissue, which provide a specimen for examination and diagnosis? Excisional biopsies
What is the resection includes the removal of a tumor and a large area of surrounding tissue that contains lymph nodes? En bloc
What is the destruction of tissue with electric sparks? Fulguration
What is destruction of tissue by burning? Electrocauterzation
What is often used to treat bladder or brain tumors by freezing the malignant tissue which results in its destruction? Cryosurgery
What is a wide resection that removes the organ of origin and surrounding tissue? Exenteration
Bx Biopsy
Ca Cancer
CEA Carcinoembryonic antigen
DES Diethylstillbestrol
Mets Metastasis
NHL non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
PSA prostate-specific antigen
RNA ribonucleic acid
RTx radiation therapy
TNM tumor, nodes and metastasis
Created by: tsloan81