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Cells Review 1

Review of cell discovery and structure

QuestionAnswer
Who first looked through the microscope at cork and discovered little rooms he called 'cells'? Robert Hooke.
Who were the three scientists who developed the cell theory? What contributions did they make? Schleiden: all plants are made of cells. Schwann: All animals are made of cells. Virchow: cells come from existing cells.
What is the cell theory? The theory says that new cells are formed from other existing cells, and that the cell is a fundamental unit of structure, function and organization in all living organisms.
What is the difference between a light microscope and electron microscopes? A light microscope uses light passed through a thinly sliced specimen to observe; an electron microscope uses a beam of electrons to scan over or through a specimen.
What is a prokaryote? Give some characteristics. A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that does not have a membrane-bound nucleus. It is small and simple. An example is a bacterium.
What is a eukaryote? Give some characteristics. A eukaryote is a plant or animal cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. It is large and complex. An example is the cell of an oak tree.
What is the structure and function of the nucleus? The structure of the nucleus is a sphere that contains another sphere called a nucleolus. The nucleus functions as the storage center of cell’s DNA and manages cell functions.
What is the structure and function of the cytoplasm? The cytoplasm is a thick, gel-like material throughout the cell. Its functions are to contain nutrients for the cell and support organelles.
What is the structure and function of the cytoskeleton? The cytoskeleton is a network of thin threads of actin and microtubules throughout the cell. Its functions are to support organelles, help the cell keep its shape, and to assist in cell division.
What is the structure and function of a ribosome? Ribosomes are proteins made of two subunits. Their function is to create proteins.
What is the structure and function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum? The rough ER is made of membranes with ribosomes attached. Its function is to make large amounts of proteins that will be exported from the cell.
What is the structure and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum? The smooth ER is a system of membranes- no ribosomes. Its functions are to make lipids and break down toxins.
What is the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus/complex? The Golgi is a series of flat stacked membranes. Its function is to receive, modify, and ship proteins it gets from the rough ER.
What is the structure and function of the mitochondria? Mitochondria contain a folded inner membrane and a smooth outer membrane. Their function is to break down glucose into ATP.
What is the structure and function of lysosomes? Lysosomes are spherical and contain digestive enzymes. They break down food particles, invading pathogens, or worn out organelles.
What is the structure and function of peroxisomes? Peroxisomes are sphereical and contain catalase! They break down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
What is cilia? How is it different from flagella? Cili are short hairs made of microtubules. Flagella are long hairs made of microtubules. Their function is to provide cell movement.
What is the structure and function of a vacuole? Vacuoles are large membrane-bound organelles that are used for storage of water, nutrients, or wastes.
What is the structure and function of a chloroplast? A chloroplast contains stacked sacs on the inside and another membrane on the outside. Their function is to turn light energy into glucose.
What is the structure and function of the cell membrane? The cell membrane is a semi-permeable bilayer made of phospholipids, cholesterol, and other proteins. Its function is to allow or block things from entering the cell.
What is the structure and function of the cell wall? The cell wall is a rigid structure made of cellulose. It forms a boundary around plant cells and gives them structure and strength.
Created by: jdesrochers