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PHS Ch 17

Academic Knowledge: Body Systems for Maintenance and Continuation

QuestionAnswer
absorption the act of taking up a substance into a tissue, such as the movement of nutrients from the small intestines into the bloodstream.
digestion term for the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into nutrients that can be absorbed and used by the body.
excretion the removal of waste products from the body.
filtration the process of separating substances, such as solid from liquid, large from small, or impure from pure.
gametes reproductive cells that have half the normal number of chromosomes and unite during fertilization; sperm in males and ova in females.
heredity the passing of traits (such as eye color, height, and some diseases) from parent or ancestor to offspring through chromosomes.
ingestion the stage of digestion in which food is taken into the body through the mouth.
meiosis the sexual process of cell division that produces four new haploid cells, each with a unique combination of 23 chromosomes.
mitosis the asexual process of cellular reproduction that creates two identical copies of a cell, each with a full set of 46 chromosomes.
nutrients molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals used by the body to grow and maintain body processes.
reabsorption The act of returning a substance to the part of the body from which it was previously filtered out.
secretion the release of a liquid substance from blood, cells, or tissues.
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