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science (lava) vocab

5th grade science vocab definitions

Deposition The dropping of sediment or particles by water, wind, or ice
Delta A deposit of sediment that builds up at a river's mouth
Flood plain A broad, flat valley through which a river flows
Longshore current A current that moves parallel to the shore
Barrier island A long, narrow island that forms along the coast
Sand dune A mound of sand piled up by the wind
Glacier A huge mass of ice and snow that moves slowly over the land
Moraine A ridge of sediment and rock left behind when a glacier melts
Drumlin A long, oval shaped mound of soil and rock formed from glacial deposits
Lava Magma that reaches Earth's surface
Magma Hot, molten rock deep below Earth's surface
Fault A crack in Earth's crust whose sides show evidence of motion
Weathering Breaking down rocks into smaller pieces
Mechanical weathering A type of weathering that breaks rock into smaller pieces without changing it chemically
Chemical weathering A type of weathering that changes rock into one or more new substances
Erosion The picking up and carrying away pieces of rocks
Desert pavement A surface of bare ground and large stones in a desert where wind has removed all particles of sand
Sea stack A pillar of stone in the sea that forms headlands
Headland A point of land that sticks out in the ocean
Sea arch A formation made when waves first carve away softer rock in the headland
Dam A structure built across a river to control its flow
Groin A structure built at right angles to the beach to control beach erosion
Seawall A structure built parallel to the shore to control beach erosion
Beach nourishment The placement of additional sand on beaches to protect them from erosion
Contour plowing Preventing erosion by plowing across rather than up and down a slope
Terracing Shaping hillsides into steps so that runoff and eroded soil get trapped on the steps
Storm drain management System of drains that prevents flooding during heavy rainstorms
Earthquakes The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
Volcanoes A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface
Levee A long ridge formed by sediments along a river channel
Ring of Fire A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
Continental drift The idea that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
Ridge A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
Trench A deep valley in the sea floor
Plate tectonic A scientific theory that Earth's crust is made of moving plates
Crust The rocky surface that makes up the top of the lithosphere and includes the continents and the ocean floor
Mantle The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
Tsunami A giant wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor
Sediment Small, solid particles of material from rocks organisms
Landform A feature formed by the processes that shape the Earth's surface
Seismograph A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves
Created by: suema