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Gov Test #1

Principles of Government

State A body of people living in a defined territory, organized politically and have the power to make or change their own laws w/o a higher power's consent. (Doesn't need to be just 50 states)
Sovereign Absolute rule within a defined territory
Force Theory (most common) a state comes about by being pushed (they may or may not want to)
Example of Force Theory any dictatorship (Roman Empire, Nazi Germany)
Evolutionary Theory when states naturally change over time (oldest is the leader)
Example of Evolutionary Theory Indian tribes
Divine Right Theory chosen by God
Example of Divine Right Theory Emporers, Egypt Pharohs, Dinesties in Asia, The Vatican (Pope)
Social Contract Theory people have power, they make decisions; the state exists to serve the people
Example of Social Contract Theory US
Purposes of Gov't: 1-form a more perfect union 2-establish justice 3-assure domestic tranquility 4-provide a common defense 5-promote general welfare 6-secure the blessings of liberty
Example of promoting general welfare New Deal, laws for going to school
Thomas Jefferson says this purpose of government is the most important To establish justice
Forms of Gov't: Unitary, Confederation, Federalism
Unitary Gov't (examples, pros, cons) one person/agency has all the power (ex: dictatorship, king/queen, china, england) pro-efficient, con-too much power to agency (ppl have no say)
Confederation Gov't (examples) alliance of states for the purpose of defense (ex:Indians, South in Civil War, 13 colonies)
Federalism (examples) dividing of powers (ex: US-federal (income tax), state (speed limit, murder), local (curfew))
Branches of Gov't: Executive, Judicial, Legislature
Executive Branch (President)-enforces laws
Judicial Branch (example) (Supreme Court)-interprets laws (ex: Plessy v. Ferguson-reviewed for yrs if it was constitutional for separation of blacks and whites, overruled)
Legislative Branch (Congress: Senate (100), House of Reps (435)) makes laws
Basic Concepts of Democracy: 1-fundamental worth of each individual 2-equality for all 3-majority rule with minority rights 4-compromise 5-greatest amt of individual freedom possible (until one infringes on another's right; ex: seat belts, helmet on motorcycle)
Basic Principles of the Constitution 1-popular sovereignty (people rule) 2-limited gov't 3-separation of power (not to just 1 group) 4-checks & balances 5-judicial review (law is constit'tl) 6-federalism (national, state, local)
Why is Constitution vague? the founding fathers knew things would change
Amendment adding something to the constitution (27)
Formal Amendment Process (4)-Senate writes up change, presents it, needs 2/3 vote of Senate (67), then needs 2/3 of House of Reps (290), then needs majority from each state, needs 75% of states (38), then its an Amendment (if no at any time=over)
Informal Amendment Processes 1-basic law 2-presidential action (vietnam=conflict) 3-Supreme Court Decision (if law is constit'tl) 4-political party activities 5-custom (pres. cabinet-15 ppl)
3 Court Cases 1-1896-Plessy v. Ferguson-separate but = was constit'tl 2-1954-Brown v. Tepeca Board of Education-separat but = isnt constit'tl 3-1973-Roe v. Wade-abortion in 1st trimester
Created by: deleted user



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