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BIOLOGY FINAL EXAM

QuestionAnswer
DNA and RNA contain functional units known as: Nucleotides
Phospholipids are made up of: A phosphate, two fatty acids and a glycerol
Matter is composed of atoms
Protiens are polymers formed of structural units called Amino acids
You explain to your study group that a hypothesis is An explanation that accounts for careful observations
Enzymes function to catalyze chemical reactions
Biological membranes contain bilayers containing mostly Phospholipids
The same basic array of bones is modified to give rise to the wing of a bat and the fin of a porpoise. homologous
What polysaccharide forms long, tough fibers found in plant cell walls cellulose
A DNA molecule containing 32% thymine will contain how much cytosine 18%
Cellulose is composed of monomers of Glucose
the subatomic particle with a positive charge is a proton
Negatively charged subatomic particles that have almost no mass are called electrons
Sugars dissolve well in water because of waters polarity
Besides Darwin, the theory of evolution by means of natural selection was also independently proposed by Alfred Wallace
Essay on the principle of population, written by Thomas Malthus in 1798, influenced Darwin's thoughts as he struggled to understand what mechanisms could be at work to produce evolution. Increased geometrically in numbers while the nutrients available only increased arithmetically
Seth ordered lobster at a restaurant and realized that the outer shell was made of a tough carbohydrate similar to that used to make the carapace of a cockroach. What do you think the outer shell of the lobster is made of chitin
Which of the following reactions is a dehydration reaction A+B -> C+H2O
The DNA sequence capable of pairing with 5'CGATTAGT3' is 3'GCTAATCA5'
Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds in a Polypeptide
A nucleus acid contains uracil, allowing you to conclude that This nucleic acid is RNA
atoms of a single element that possess different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes
carbohydrates are polymers of structural units called Monosaccharides
The nitrogenous base that is only found in DNA and NOT in RNA is Thymine
Macromolecules are broken down to monomers in Hydrolysis reactions
Macromolecules that are used by all organisms to store hereditary information are called: dna molecules
Experiments are carried out to test a hypothesis by changing one variable at a time and including an unchanged variable termed a(an) control
This atom in its unbound state has 4 valence electrons. These electrons readily form single, double, and even triple bonds amongst themselves to become stable. This atom is carbon
An atom that is negatively charged because it has accepted an electron is a(an) ion
the area around a nucleus where an electron is most likely to be found is the Orbital
The biological macromolecule that is least soluble in water is a(an) lipid
Lipids are the only class of macromolecules that contain Fatty Acids
Proteins are created with Peptide bonds
In eukaryotes, mitochondria are the organelles primarily involved in energy release/capture
Peroxisomes are examples of microbodies
Schleiden and Schwann stated the "cell theory," which in its modern form says: all organisms are composed of one or more cells, all cells are the smallest living things and all cells arise by division of other cells.
Ribosomes are made up of protein and RNA
Cholesterol functions in the plasma membrane to maintain fluidity
If you were a very thirsty cell, which process would you use to take in some nutrients secreted by one of your neighbors? pinocytosis
Which of the following protein classes are not found as membrane proteins hormones
If two solutions have unequal concentrations of a solute, the solution with the lower concentration is called hypotonic
The type of movement that is specific and requires carrier molecules and energy is active transport
Nuclear pores permit the passage of all the following except: DNA molecules only outward.
the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls containes a carbohydrate matrix linked together by short chains of amino acids
In the process of diffusion, molecules move from areas where their concentration is higher to areas where their concentration is lower until an equilibrium is reached.
prokaryotic cell movement is attributed to flagella
The type of movement of molecules that is specific and passive, and which becomes saturated if all of the protein carriers are in use is facilitated diffusion
In a single sodium-potassium pump cycle, ATP is used with the result that 3 sodium ions leave and 2 potassium ions enter
the movement of substances from regions where their concentration is higher to regions where their concentration is lower is called diffusion
a phospholipid molecule had a polar and a non polar end. Because if this, water molecules from hydrogen bonds with the polar end of the phospholipid molecule
Plant cells often have a large membrane-bound sac that is used for storing water and other substances called a central vacuole
the eukaryotic organelle that is directly involved in the transport of proteins synthesized on the surface of the rough ER is called the Golgi body
The part of a membrane protein that extends through the phospholipid bilayer is primarily composed of amino acids that are non-polar
Who first described cells? Hooke
mitochondria and chloroplasts are the other organelles besides the nucleus that contain DNA
The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of _____. microtubules in a 9 + 2 arrangement
what is the main component of an animal cell membrane phospholipids
the nucleolis is the site of ribosome assembly
the lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called phospholipids
this cellular structure lacks a membrane nucleoid
on the outer surface of the plasma membrane there are marker molecules that identify the cell type. Often these molecules are carbohydrate chains
How are the tails and heads of membrane phospholipids oriented in their environment? The hydrophobic tails are oriented towards each other and the hydrophilic heads are oriented towards the extracellular fluid and the intracellular fluid.
turgor pressure is observed when a plant cells environment is hypoosmotic
membrane proteins serve many function. one of the functions is transportation of substances across the membrane. If a cell biologist placed cells into an environment in which a chemical active transport
The semi-fluid matrix that surrounds organelles in a cell is called the: cytoplasm
Clusters of chlorophyll and accessory pigments are called ________. photosystems
energy is defined as the capacity to do work
The cyclic carbon fixation reactions are also known as the Calvin Cycle
The ultimate source of energy for all life on earth comes from what source the sun
What aspect of cellular respiration occurs in the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells Glycolysis
In an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, the reactant is called the substrate
What stage of cellular respiration can occur in human cells with or without oxygen present? Glycolysis
Light consists of units of energy called photons
The amount of energy available to do work is called free energy
Carbon dioxide and water can combine to form glucose, water, and oxygen. What is required for that process to occur light energy from the sun
The Law of Thermodynamics that states that increases in entropy are favored is: The Second Law of thermodynamics
What happens to the oxygen that is used in cellular respiration it is reduced to form water
The chemistry of living systems representing all chemical reactions is called metabolism
Organisms that can manufacture their own chemical energy are called autotrophs
In aerobic respiration, chemiosmotic generation of ATP is driven by a difference in H+ concentration on the two sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
RNA molecules that also act as enzymes are given the name ribozymes
A particular chemical reaction is exergonic. What can you say about the relationship between the reactants and the products in this exergonic reaction The reactants have more free energy than the products
Molecules that absorb light are called pigments
When oxygen is unavailable during heavy exercise what process do muscle cells use for energy generation? Glycolysis coupled with lactate fermentation
The law of thermodynamics that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed is The First Law of Thermodynamics
How many molecules of CO2 are needed to generate one molecule of glucose 6
Flattened sacs of internal membranes associated with photosynthesis are called Thylakoids
When an atom or molecule gains one or more electrons, it is said to be reduced
What products of light reactions of photosynthesis are used in the Calvin cycle ATP and NADPH
The synthesis of sugar molecules through the process of photosynthesis requires energy absorbed from sunlight. Bearing this in mind, what kind of reaction is photosynthesis endergonic
The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are those that convert CO2 into reduced molecules (sugars)
What is an end-product of glycolysis? pyruvate
organisms that depend on the energy stored in chemical bonds by other organisms for their food energy are called heterotrophs
It is thought that the oldest stage of cellular respiration from an evolutionary perspective is glycolysis
In photosynthesis carbon fixation occurs in the calvin cycle
Chlorophyll b absorbs green wavelengths of light that chlorophyll a cannot absorb. In this respect, chlorophyll b acts as an accessory pigment
What oxidizing agent is used to temporarily store high energy electrons harvested from glucose molecules in a series of gradual steps in the cytoplasm? NAD+
Plants that show a pattern of stomatal opening and closing that is the reverse of C3 plants are called CAM
Mendel's Principle of Independent Assortment states that different pairs of alleles segregate independently of each other
interphase is made up of what stages of the cell cycle G1 + G2 + S
pairing of homologous chromosomes is called synapsis
What is the portion of the cell during which the chromosomes are invisible under the light microscopic because there are not yet condensed interphase
during what stages of the cell are sister chromatids bound together by cohesion S, G2, prophase, metaphase
Mendel used the garden ___ plant for his studies on inheritance. pea
An allele that is present but unexpressed is recessive
What immediately follows meiosis I? Prophase II
The portion of the cell cycle when the cell is growing and does not contain a replicated genome is referred to as: G1
Chromosomes exchange genetic information by crossing over
Let P=purple flowers and p=white, and T=tall plants and t=dwarf. Of the 16 possible gamete's combinations in the dihybrid cross between 2 double heterozygous how many would produce the phenotype white, tall 3
Mendel demonstrated which of the following about inherited traits? Check all that apply. - traits can be hidden in some generations, but subsequently reappear unchanged in future generations. - traits segregate among the offspring of a cross. - certain traits are more likely to appear than their alternatives.
which is the following events occurs first during meiosis synapsis of homologous chromosomes
The stage of the cell cycle during which the cytoplasm divides to form two cells is called: cytokinesis
What is the sequence of events in a typical eukaryotic cell cycle G1, S, G2, mitosis, cytokinesis
Let P=purple flowers and p=white, and T=tall plants and t=dwarf. What are the genotypes of the gametes that are produces by a plant that is heterozygous for both traits? PT, Pt, pT, and pt
at the end of meiosis 2, each of the four resulting cells contains one full set of chromosomes, each with 1 molecule of DNA.
The point of connection between two sister chromatids, before anaphase II of meiosis separates them, is called the centromere
Diploid organisms use meiosis to produce haploid cells. Meiosis consists of how many rounds of nuclear division? two
A duplicate copy of all of the hereditary information contained in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells is made during what stage of the cell cycle? S
What type of cross is used to determine if an individual with the dominant form of a trait is homozygous or heterozygous? test cross
these structures are held together by cohesion sister chromatids
in bacterial cell division, the cell divides into two nearly equal halves. this process is referred to as binary fission
in bacterial cell division, the cell divides into two nearly equal halves. this process is referred to as meiosis
before cell division of somatic cells each chromosomes must be replicated. after replication the resulting two parts of each chromosomes are held together by cohesion at the centromere. These two parts are referred to as Sister chromatids
The cell produced by the fusion of an egg and a sperm is the zygote
which of the following produces new cells that are genetically identical to the original cell mitosis
This stage of the cell cycle is characterized by growth and it contains a checkpoint to verify that all of the DNA has been replicated prior to mitosis. G2
an independent assortment of allele pairs is due to the independent segregation of homologous chromosome pairs during anaphase 1
An allele for a particular trait that is only expressed in the presence of a second copy of the same allele is called recessive
which best describes the process of independent assortment The way one pair of homologues lines up along the metaphase plate does not affect how any other pair lines up.
Following S phase, a human cell would have how many pairs of sister chromatids and individual DNA molecules? 46 pairs of sister chromatids and 92 individual DNA molecules
Embryonic cell cycles allow the rapid division of cells in the early embryo. These mitotic cell cycles are much shorter in length than the mitotic cell cycles of cells in a mature organism. In the embryonic cell cycles, mitosis takes approximately resulting daughter cells are smaller than the mother cell in the embryonic cell cycle
During his experiments with pea plants, Mendel referred to the trait that was expressed in the F1 or first filial generation as dominant
The pairing of chromosomes along their lengths, which is essential for crossing over, is referred to as synapsis
In animals, the cells that will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes are set aside early in development. These are called germ line cells
Mendel chose the garden pea for his work on inheritance for which of the following reasons? Check all that apply. Earlier investigators had shown segregation among the offspring. A large number of true breeding varieties were available. The generation time was short; many offspring can be grown easily. He could choose to self- or cross-pollinate.
Crossing over between homologous chromosomes takes place during Prophase I
Based on his monohybrid crosses, Mendel's proposed which of the following? Check all that apply Alternative forms of a trait are encoded by alternative alleles. The 2 alleles for a given trait separate when gametes form. Each allele has an equal probability of being passed on to the gametes. Diploid individuals have 2 alleles for each trait.
The allelic make up of a cell or individual is referred to as its genotype
One of a pair of chromosomes with similar genetic information and from different sources like the sperm and egg. homologue
in mendels experiment on seed color in pea plants, when a dominant yellow seed bearing plant was crossed with a recessive green seed bearing plant, what was the approximate phenotype ratio among the F2 generation 3 yellow: 1 green
in a heterozygous individual, the allele being expressed is dominant
A cell biologist produces a karyotype of mouse somatic cells arrested in mitosis. She sees 40 chromosomes, which is completely normal for mice. Based on this information, what is the haploid number of chromosomes for mice? 20
The two copies of each type of chromosome found in normal somatic (body) cells in an organism, throughout the cell cycle, are called: homologous chromosomes
Let P=purple flowers and p=white, and T=tall plants and t=dwarf. If the upper case letters represent the dominant alleles, what is the phenotype of a plant with the genotype PpTt? purple flowers, tall
all animals cells are diploid except gametes
the zygote has two copies of each chromosome
the physical distribution of cytoplasmic material into the two daughter cells in plant cells is referred to as cytokinesis
Which structures indicate where crossing over had occurred chiasmata
Created by: jullliiee__
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