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Study Stack #5

Define chromatin Chromatin-uncoiled strands of DNA
Define chromosomes Chromosomes- coiled chromatin; contains genes
define genes Genes—segments of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a certain hereditary trait
define chromatin and centromere chromatid- one part of a duplicated chromosome centromere attaches 2 chromatids
define homologous chromosomes chromosome pairs that are structurally similar and contain information for same genes; (can have different expression of information on those genes)
In what cells does mitosis take place? How many chromosomes are involved in human body cells? What are diploid cells? -mitosis takes place in somatic (body) cells -involves 46 chromosomes (23 homologous pairs) diploid cells are body cells that contain all homologous pairs of chromosomes
What is asexual reproduction? Compare the DNA of the parent cell to the DNA of the daughter cells. There is only one parent and no exchange of genetic information. Daughter cells are identical to parent cells
List what happens in interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis….THIS WILL BE A LOT OF WRITING. continue to cards at the end!!!
Define experimental and control group. Control group- variable is not changed; used for comparison Experimental group- one variable is changed
Define hypothesis and prediction Hypothesis-A possible explanation or answer to a question Prediction- An IF-THEN statement States in advance the results of the experiment
Explain the difference between independent and dependent variables. a) Independent variable- what is changed in the experiment b) Dependent variable- what changes due to the independent variable
Define mitochondria and its relationship with cellular respiration. *The rest is on the back* Mitochondria has cristae which are inner folds that increase the surface area so more glucose can be broken down and more energy (ATP) released -Mitochondria uses Oxygen to break down glucose during cellular respiration and release more energy in the form of ATP
Why are somatic daughter cells identical to parent cells? There is no exchange of genetic information between the homologous chromosomes.
Why is it important for DNA to duplicate before the cells divide? The new daughter cells must have their own copy of the DNA because the DNA is their directions and tells the organelles and cell what to do.
How do DNA, RNA and amino acids work together to make proteins? *The rest is on the back* DNA carries the code for the mRNA strands to be completed. The tRNA comes to their complementary bases in the mRNA bringing with them the amino acids they are coded to carry. Based on the order of the bases in the DNA to the RNA the amino acids are placed in order and a protein is formed.
How would a mutation influence the proteins that are supposed to be made? *The rest is on the back* If there is a mutation in the DNA that means that a different mRNA will be brought to the DNA strand. A different tRNA will then be brought carrying the wrong amino acid than the one that is needed to build the correct protein. This means that a protein will be produced that is not what was originally coded for and that is not what is needed.
What are the two organelles that have DNA? Which organelle only has DNA from the mother? mitochondria and nucleus; mitochondria
Interphase: -chromosomes (in the form of chromatin) and organelles replicate
Prophase:*The rest is on the back* -chromatin coils into chromosomes (hint: each chromosome now is made up of 2 chromatids joined by a centromere) -nuclear membrane disappears -in animal cells centrioles appear at the sides of the cell (hint: these are small structures that look like circles) -spindle fibers form (hint: these are small fibers that look like strings that attach to the centrioles and the chromosomes)
Metaphase: -chromosomes move to the center of the cell (the equator)
Anaphase: -chromosomes divide and chromatids separate -chromatids are pulled to opposite sides pulled by spindle fibers
Telophase: -centrioles and spindle fibers disappear -chromatids unwind back into chromatin -nuclear membrane reforms -cytoplasm starts to divide into two cells
Cytokinesis: -cytoplasm in parent cell totally divides - there are now 2 daughter cells that have DNA identical to the parent cell This leads into another phase of INTERPHASE where the cells divide again….it is a continuous cycle!
Created by: 23efritz
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