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What can weaken the left ventricle? Excessice Preload
What color does the pericardial sac need to be? Staw colored
Starlings Law Law of physiology statin that the more myocardium is stretched up to a certain amount the more forceful the subsequent contraction will be.
Blood Pressure equation stroke volume times heart rate times systemic vascular reisitance.
Tricuspid valve location Between the atrium and right ventricle
Pulmonary Valve location between the ventricle and pulmonary artery
Mitral valve or bicupsid valve location Left atrium to left ventricle
Aortic valve location Left ventricle to the aortic valve.
Excitability the cells can respond to an electrical stimulous, like other myocardial cells
Conductivity The cells can propogate the impluse from one cell to another
Automaticity Pacemaker cells capability of self depolarization
Contractility Ability of muscle cells to contract, or shorten
What does a pathological Q wave on an EKG indicate? Tissue death, may also indicate extensive transient ischemia
What happens when stroke volume decreases? The systemic vascular resistance will increase to maintain blood pressure and heart rate will increase
During resting potention the cardiac cell should be doing what? The inside of the cell should be more negativly charged.
Resting potential The normal electrical state of a cardiac cell
Describe the s1 heart sound Produced by the closure of the AV valve during ventricular systole
Describe the s2 heart sound produced by the closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves
What are normal heart sounds> s1 and s2
when you educate the public on heart disease you should include what? Risk factorssigns and symptomshear disease
How many seconds is a small box and a big box on a EKG Small = 0.04Big= 0.20
What does the left coronary artery supply? Left ventricle, the interventricular septum, part of the right ventricle, and the hearts conduction system.
What does the right coronary artery supply? Portion of the right artium and left ventricle and part of the conduction system
What is the first phaze of the cardiac cycle? Diastole
What are the early signs of hyperkalemia? Pointed T wave
What is a EKG useful for? Rate and heartbeatregularity of the heartbeattimes to take the conduct the impluse through the various parts of the heart
Things an EKG cannot detect? Presence of location of an infarct, axis deviatioin or chamber enlargement, right to left differences or impluse formation, quatily or presenceof the pumping action.
What does ST elevation mean? Injury, most often the early sign of a MI
Pulseless Paradox Abnormally large decrease in systolic b.p more than 10 torr
What might pulseless paradox mean? Tamponade, adhesive pericarditis and sever ling disease and advanced heart failure
What part of the EKG represents ventricular depolarization? QRS complex
Define a postive inotropic agent Strengthens cardiac contraction
Deince negative inotropic effects Weakens cardiac contraction
Define a positive chronotropix agent Insreses heart rate
DEfine a negative chronotropic agent Decreases h.r
DEfine a postive dromotropic agent Speeds impulse conduction
Define a negative dromotropic agent slows conduction
SA node firing rate 60-100
AV node firing rate 40-60
Purkinje system firing rate 15-40
What is the myocradium The thick middle layer of the heart
how many cells does the capillary wall consist of ? a single layer thick
The aterty and veins innermost layer The tunica intima
The middle layer of arteries and veins Tunica media it consists of elastic fibers and muscle
The outermost layer of arterys? Tunica adventitia, a fibrous tissue covering gives the muscle strength to withstand the pressure of heart contractions
The cavity inside the vessel Lumen
How big does the q wave have to be to be significant? at least one small square wide lasting 0.04 sec or is more than one third the height of the qrs complex
What would the ekg of a hypokalemix pt be? A flattened t wave and a prominent u waveS
What is the approproate way the heart fires? 1.sa node2. av node3. bundle of his4. right and left bundle brances5. purkinje system
Ejection Fraction definition Ratio of blood pumped from the ventrcles to the amount remaining at the end of diastole
Stroke volume Amount of blood ejected by the heart in one cardiac contraction
Preload The pressure within the ventricles at the end of diastole, commonly called the end of diastole volume
Afterload The resistane against which the heart must pump
Cardiac Deploarization The cell is more positive, a reversal od changes at the cell membrane so that he inside of the cell becomes positive in relation to the outside.
Where are the sympathetic nerves of the cardiac plexus located?? Thoracic and lumbar regions
If your looking at a ekg where would you see the relative refractory period? The downslope of the T wave
Equation for cardiac output Venous return stroke volume and preload
Things that increase the risk of cardiac disease smokingolder agefamily historyhypertensionhypercholesteroemiacarbohydrate intolerancecocainemaleslack of exersice
What does the QRS complex represent Ventricular depolarization
What fraction is stroke volume of the left ventricle 2/3
Relative refractory period a period in the cardiac cycle when a sufficently strong stimulous may produce depolarization
Absoloute Refractory period A period in the cardiac cycle when the stimulation will not produce and depolarization
what are the pericardium layers? Vicseral and pariteal
Normal QT interval? 0.42
Where the Apex is located? just above the diaphragm, left of the midline
Where is the base located? Approx at the level of the second rib
what is a pacing rhythm Wife QRS complex
Where is the Av node located? Lower part of the right atrium
how many people each year die from CVD 466,000
Factors that are though to increase the rish of cvd dietobesitytype a personailitystressbirth control
The only vein that carrys oxygenated blood? Pulmonary veins
The hearts two sets of valves Atrioventricular and semilunar
What is the right atrioventricular valve called? TRicuspid
What is the left atriovent valve called? Mitral
What are the mital and tricuspif valce connected too? special papillary muschles in the ventricles aka chordae tendonae
What is atrial systole Relativly quick boost occurs right before vent contracttions right before cardiac output
bipolar limb leads Leads 1, 2 and 3 applied to the arms and legs contains two electrodes of opposite polarity
What are the augmented leads? aVR aVL aVF
Normal PR interva;? 0,12-0.20
Normal QRS 0.08-0.12
Normal QT o.33-0.42
Dysrhythmia Any deviation from the normal electrical rhythm of the heart
Arhythmia The absence of cardiac electrical activity
Cardiovascualr diease Disease affectiong the heart and blood vesels or both
Coronary hear disease a type of cvd the singlemost largest killer of americans
Poiseullies law blood flow through a vessel is directly porportionate to the radius if the vessek ti tge fourht power
A group of cardiac muscle that function as one unit syncytium
Special bands if tissue insereted between myocarduak cekks that increase the ate at which the action potential is spread from cell to cell intercallated discs
action potential stimulation of cells spreads across the myocardium
What is corrected QT qt divided by the square root of the rr
Ectopic focus nonpacemaker heart cell that automatically depolarizes
Ectopic beat cardiac depolarization resulting from depolarization of ectopic focus
noncompensatory pause pause folliwng an ectopic beat where the sa node is depolarized and the unerlyingcadence of the heart is interupted
aberrant conduction condustion of the electrial impulse through the heards conductive system in an abnormal fashion
bundle brance block a kind of interventricular heart block in which conduction through either the right of left bundle brach is blocked
bundle of kent an accesory av conductuon path that is thought to be responsibe for the ecg fingings of preexcitation syndrome
Created by: 572201762