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Renal

FA review round 3

QuestionAnswer
What is Furosemide? Potassium-wasting loop diuretic that decreases fluid overload in patients with CHF
Example of a potassium-wasting loop diuretic Furosemide
Which artery prevents the ascencion of horseshoe kidney? Inferior Mesenteric artery
What is the anion gap range in metabolic acidosis? > 12 mEq/L
What are some common accidental ingestions that may cause anion gap metabolic acidosis? Aspirin, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, methanol, INH, and metformin
What are the classic symptoms of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis? Nephritic syndrome, sinusitis, fever, and purpura
What autoantibody is positive in Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis? c-ANCA
Which vasculitis is c-ANCA (+)? Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
What is the result of Urethral obstruction due to posterior urethral valves obstruction? Dilation of both kidneys and ureters, as well as the bladder
What are the main clinical signs of Acute (allergic) interstitial nephritis? Rash, fever, and eosinophilia
What are the most common UA findings of Allergic Interstitial nephritis? WBCs and WBC casts
What are the two main categories of medications that cause Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)? NSAIDs and Antibiotics
Which are the known or most common antibiotics that may cause AIN? Penicillin, cephalosporin, and sulfonamide
What is a possible indicated of ERDS? Severe uremic symptoms
What is the reason of death by MI in a person with severe ESRD? Accelerated rate of Atherosclerosis
How does sepsis cause ARDS? Neutrophil release of cytokines and proteases
Which factor of permeability and Starling forces is affected by Sepsis leading to ARDS? Increase in Kf
Small vessel vasculitis that affects the lungs, upper airways, glomeruli and skin (purpura)? Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
Is GPA positive for c-ANCA or p-ANCA? c-ANCA
Is the serum complement level increased or decreased in Postinfectious GN? Decreased
What are the classic histological findings of Acute tubular necrosis? Muddy brown casts
What are the main findings of Acute tubular necrosis in a UA? Muddy brown casts and Tubular epithelial cells
What condition may be suspected after starting aminoglycosides a week ago in a renal patient? Acute tubular necrosis
Which electrolyte components of urine are essential to maximize renal free water reabsorption? Urea and NaCl
Elevated PTH + hypercalcemia, in a patient with kidneys stones and constipation strongly suggest? Parathyroid adenoma
What is the net effect of high PTH in blood? Increased serum calcium and decreased serum phosphate
What leads to low serum phosphate in a patient with hyperparathyroidism? Increased kidney excretion of phosphate
What is the most significant finding of Hyperemesis gravidarum? Ketonuria
What is the most common Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor? Acetazolamide
What diuretic is commonly used to high-altitude illness? Acetazolamide
Acetazolamide induces metabolic acidosis or metabolic alkalosis? Metabolic acidosis
What is the main histologic finding of Squamous cell cancer of the bladder? Keratin pearls
What pathogen is associated with developing of Squamous cell cancer to the bladder? S. haematobium
What is the most severe complication of Wilms tumor? Metastases to the lung and liver
Which condition is often seen with the transition from initial hyperkalmia then converting into hypokalemia wth treatment? DKA
Why si patassium given as treatment in DKA? Despite initial pseudo-hyperkalemia, the person is losing potassium in the urine, which will lead to hypokalemia overall
Whoud are the biopsy results or finidings of Membranous nephropahty? Immmune diepsits in a subepithelial and intramembranous pattern, as well as GBM thickeing due these deposits
What is the result on electrolyte balances in a person with advace ESRD? Accumulationof total body water, Na+, and K+, du to inabilty to filter properly
What are the baseis for Glormrual Basemeent Membrane permeabilty? Size and charge
Which protein is often a marker of glomerular basement membrane damage due to ist incrased filtration? Albumin
Albumin: negative or positve charged molecule? Negative
Is Albumin pereamble by the GBM in a healty patient? No, it is not due to its negative charge
What protein is inhibitied by Thiazide diuretics? Na-Cl contranstpor in the DCT
What type of transpor is seen with the Na-Cl contrasport in the DCT of the nephron? Secondary active transport
What is GFR ? Flow rate of flud throough the glomerular basemen membrane
What lab values can ber sused to estimage GFR? Inulin or Creatine clearance
What type of AKI is seen in cases presenting renal hypoperfusion? Prerenal AKI
What are common condition that result in prerenal AKI? Volume depletion, bleeding, heat failure, liver failure, or bilateral RAS
What is the urine sodium of prerenal AKI? <10 mEq/L
What is the Fractional extretion of sodium (FENa) in prerenal AKI? <1%
What thpe of AKI is seen with a BUN:Cr > 20? Prerenal AKI
Classic signs aHCOnd symptoms of CN poisoning? CNS symptoms, acidosis, and increaed methemoglobin
What is accumulated in CN poisoning that leads to develop metabolic acidosis? Lactic acid
What diurtec is known to cause bicarbonate diuresis? Acetazolamide
How does Acetazolamide casuse bicarbonate diuretis? Reducing renal acid excretion
On which part of the nephron does Acetazolamide work? PCT
What typee of cells are repent in ATN? Renal tubular epithelial cells
Which type of hyperaldosteronism is foten acused by RAS? Secondary hyperaldosteronism
What leads to secoencdry hyperaldosteronism in a patient with RAS? Excess renin secreion by the affecterd kindney
In unilateral RAS, does the unaffected kidney show an increase or decrease in Renin sercretion? Decrease
What are two common causes of hyponatremia? SIADH or Thiazide diuretics
What is an electrolyte abnormality due to Thiazide diuretics? Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
How does vitamin D deficiency cause hypophosphatemia? Decreasing intestinal absorption of phosphate and increasing urinary phosphate excretion
Is vitamin D deficiency associated with low or high serum phosphate levels? Low phosphate levels in serum
What are a few risks factors for FSGN? HIV, IV drug use, heroin morbid obesity, and less commonly lupus
What common glomerular disease is associated with gross hematuria in young patients concurrent with few days after viral respiratory illness? Iga nephropathy
What are the adverse of calcium and potassium associated with thiazides? Hypokalemia and hypercalcemia
What type of anemia is seen with menstruating women with inadequate iron intake? Iron deficiency anemia
List of common causes of a right shift in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve: 1. Acidemia 2. Increased temperature 3. Exercise 4. Elevated [2, 3-BPG] 5. Elevated PaCO2
What nephrotic condition is often associated with Statin use? Rhabdomyolysis-induced acute tubular necrosis
Which glomerular capillary pressure is affected using NSAIDs? Glomerular capillary HYDROSTATIC pressure
ON which arteriole do NSAIDs have greatest effect, afferent or efferent? Afferent
What is the result on the afferent renal arteriole if patient is taking an NSAID? Afferent arteriole constriction
What is the effect on the renal afferent arteriole with? NSAIDS ----> Prostaglandins ----> Vasoconstriction - NSAIDs Vasodilatiion --- Prostagladings
What are important hemodynamic changes seen with hypovolemic shock? 1. Low preload --> drop (low) CO 2. Low CO leads -----> Reflex tachycardia , Vasoconstriction (SVR increase), and increase release of ADH and renin
How is the UA of prerenal AKI? Normal UA
Created by: rakomi
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