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Stack #34639

Pathophysiology Movement of Water

- contusion is bleeding into the skin or underlying tissues as a consequence of a blow
- abrasion results from removal of the superficial layers of the skin caused by friction between the skin and injuring object
- apoptosis = a distinct type of sublethal injury, cellular self-destruction that occurs in both normal and pathologic tissue changes. This is cell death, getting rid of old cells. In some cases is routine body maintained
- Epinephrine exerts its affects on the Cardiovascular system
- Norepinephrine chief effects compliment those of epinephrine
- Cortisols chief effects involve metabolic processes by inhibiting the use of metabolic substances while promoting there formation
signs of dehydration - Water deprivation, - Hypovolemia, - Intracellular Dehydration
- Water deprivation confusion or coma, inability to communicate, loss of thirst, inability to swallow
- Hypovolemia weight loss, weak pulse, postural hypotension, Tachycardia
- Intracellular Dehydration Thirst, fever, decreased urine output, shrinkage of brain cells
what damage free radicals cause cause cellular injury B/C they have unpaired electrons that makes the molecule unstable
How free radicals stabilize themselves - To stabilize itself the molecule gives up an electron to another molecule or steals one. Therefore it form injurious chemical bonds w/proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (key molecules in membranes and nucleic acids
- Isotonic · Occur when changes in TBW are accompanied by proportional changes in electrolytes
- Hypertonic develop when the osmolality of the ECF, is elevated above normal, usually because of increased concentration of ECF sodium or a deficit of ECF water
- Hypotonic occur when the osmolatlity is less than normal
What are some causes of edema? - Caused by osmotic movement of water into the interstitial space
- Hydrostatic pressure · Pushes the water
- Osmotic Pressure · Pulls the water
- Oncotic Pressure · Remains fairly constant bc plasma proteins do not normally cross the plasma membrane
mutation inherited alteration of genetic material
glycolisis the splitting of glucose
How many moleculkes does glycolysis produce per glucose molecule two
what is the total process of glycolysis called oxidative cellular metabolism
what is cellular injury caused from lack of oxygen (hypoxia), free radicals, caustic or toxic chemicals, infectous agents, immune responces, geetic factors, insufficent nutrients, or physical trauma from many causes
What are the sequence of events leading to cell death decrease in ATP production, failure of sodium potassium pump, cellular swelling, detachment of ribosomes from the ER, cessation of protein systhesis, mitochodrial swelling as a resukt of calcium accumulation
what is the intial result in hypoxic injury cessation of blood flow into vessels that supply the cell with oxyen and nutrients
what does Epinephrine increase C.O., and blod flow to the brain and the heart, brain and skeletal muscles by dialating blood vessels that supply these organs
How does epinephrine dialate the airways by increaseing the delivery of oxygen to the blood stream
What does decreasing insulin to the brain help you do (epinephrine) Think clearly
What effects does Norephrine do constricts the blood vessels, increases menatl alertness
where is norepinephrine produce the adrenal medulla
what is compensation with reguard to an abnormal ph correction occurs when the value of noth buffer pairs return to normal
What is low PH considered acidosis
What is high Ph considered alkalosis
a high PaCO2 a lower pH
CO2 will "move" the pH, but other factors may still cause an alkalosis
Respiratory mechanism (depth and rate of breathing) controls CO2
CO2 in solution is an acid
Higher PaCO2 causes acidosis (lower pH), or neutralizes alkalosis.
Lower PaCO2 causes alkalosis (raises pH.), or neutralizes acidosis.
Metabolic mechanism controls bicarb; amount of HCO3- is controlled by kidneys
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) is a base
High HCO3- causes alkalosis (raises pH), or neutralizes acidosis
Low HCO3 causes acidosis (lowers pH), or neutralizes alkalosis
High PaCO2 and low HCO3 (acidosis) or
Low PaCO2 and high HCO3 (alkalosis
Created by: ngemini0681