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Biology Chapter 11

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

How many phases are in meiosis? Two phases called meiosis 1 and meiosis 2.
What is a zygote? The union of two gametes (haploid cells usually egg and sperm cells).
What is a haploid cell? A cell with only ONE copy of chromosomes.
What is a diploid cell? A cell with TWO copies of chromosomes.
What is a somatic cell? All the cells of a multicellular organism except for the gametes/reproductive cells (sperm and egg cells)
What is the end result of meiosis? Four haploid cells that are genetically unique when compared to the parent cells.
What are homologous chromosomes? These are matched pairs of chromosomes that contain the same genes in identical locations along their lengths.
What happens before meiosis? Same as mitosis. Interphase containing G1, S, and G2 phase
What holds the sister chromatids together? At the centromere, sister chromatids are held by cohesion proteins until anaphase 2.
What is a synapsis? The tight pairing of the homologous chromosomes. This synapsis aligns the genes of two chromosomes precisely.
What is crossing over? This is where chromosomes exchange segments of DNA with each other.
What encourages/supports crossing over? The synaptonemal complex.
What is the synaptonemal complex? A lattice of proteins between the homologous chromosomes. This covers the entire length of the chromosomes.
What is a recombination nodule? Protein assembly formed on the synaptonemal complex that mark the points of crossover events and mediate the multistep process of crossing over.
What is chiasmata? The structure that forms at the crossover points after genetic material is exchanged.
What is a tetrad? The pair of two homologous chromosomes only held together at the chiasmata during prophase 1.
What happens in prophase 1? Homologous chromosomes are attached to the nuclear envelope before being fully developed. Then, as the nuclear envelope disappears, the proteins holding the chromosomes attract them to their pair.
What happens in proMETAphase 1? Attachment of spindle fibers to the kinetochores of chromosomes. This is when the nuclear envelope has broken down entirely.
What are kinetochore proteins? These are proteins that link the spindle fiber microtubules to the centromeres of chromosomes.
What happens in metaphase 1? The homologous chromosomes arrange at metaphase plate. The homologous chromosomes orient themselves randomly.
When do the two major diversity steps occur? During Prophase 1 (crossovers) and Metaphase 1 (random alignment of chromosomes).
What happens in Anaphase 1? The linked chromosomes are pulled apart.
What is interkinesis? This is like another interphase, but it lacks an S phase where DNA is duplicated.
What is reductional division? Nuclear division that makes haploid (having one-half as many chromosome sets as the parental nuclei) daughter nuclei. (Meiosis 1 is an example.)
What is a gametophyte? A multicellular haploid life-cycle stage that makes gametes. (Usually in plants)
What is a sporophyte? A multicellular diploid life-cycle stage that makes haploid spores by meiosis.
What is a spore? A haploid cell that makes haploid multicellular organisms or can fuse with another spore to form diploid cells.
Created by: tali_Alley
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