Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

I Infection Control

Well...It's all about controlling infection silly!

QuestionAnswer
A person who cannot resist a microorganism invading the body, multiplying, and resulting in infection. The host is susceptible to the disease, lacking immunity or physical resistance to overcome the invasion by the pathogenic microorganism. Susceptible Host
A place within which microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. For example, microorganisms thrive in human beings, animals, and inanimate objects such as water, table tops, and doorknobs. Reservoir
A place of exit providing a way for a microorganism to leave the reservoir. For example, the microorganism may leave the reservoir through the nose or mouth when someone sneezes Portal of Exit
An opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host. Portals include body orifices, mucus membranes, or breaks in the skin. Portals also result from tubes placed in body cavities, such as urinary catheters, or f Portal of Entry
Method of transfer by which the organism moves or is carried from one place to another. The hands of the health care worker may carry bacteria from one person to another. Mode of Transmission
A microbial organism with the ability to cause disease. The greater the organism's virulence (ability to grow and multiply), invasiveness (ability to enter tissue) and pathogenicity , the greater the possibility that the organism will cause an infection. Infectious Agent
A technique based upon the premise that all body substances may contain pathogens. Never touch with bare hand anything wet that comes from the body or body cavity. Protective gloves must be worn at all times when there is contact with mucus membrane, Body Substance Isolation
Arresting the growth or multiplication of bacteria. An antibiotic may be classified as a bacteriostatic medication Bacteriostatic
Freedom from infection or infectious material. (Clean) Asepsis
The passage of microorganisms suspended in the air on water droplets or dust particles that enter the host by inhalation. Airborne Transmission
The presence and multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion or damage. The infeted individual demonstrates no signs or symptoms of infection, while the potential to infect others still exists. Colonization
The physical transfer of an organism between an infected or colonized peron and a susceptible host involving direct or indirect contact. Indirect contact occurs when a patient comes in contact with equipment contaminated with infectious microorganisms. Contact Transmission
Inhalation of respiratory pathogenic microorganisms suspended on liquid particles exhaled by someone already infected. For example, a patient suffering from an upper respiratory infection sneezes, allowing pathogenic microorganisms to exit the Droplet Transmission
Techniques used to prevent or limit the spread of infection. Patients diagnosed with an infectioius disease are placed on isolation to prevent the transmission of pathogens to others. Isolation
The time between exposure to an infectious organism and the appearance of clinical systems of disease. Incubation
Technique used to control and to reduce the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. A medical aseptic technique is hand washing. Medical Asepsis
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a microbe that adapted to changes in the environment to compete for survival. Staphylococcus aureus, a common organism, developed resistance to medication. MRSA
An infection acquired during hospitialization. Nosocomial infection or Health Care Associated Infection (HCAI)
Individuals suffering from a weakened immune system and susceptible to microoranism invasion are isolated to avoid exposure. Protective Isolation
A synthesis of universal precaustions and body substance isolation techniques designed to provide protection against thte transmission of bloodborne and other infectious microorganisms. STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Techniques used to destroy all pathogenic organisms before they can enter the body. SURGICAL ASEPSIS
Barrier or isolation techniques, based upon knowledge of the mode of transfer of an infectious organism, applied to control the spread of the organism. TRANSMISSION-BASED PRECAUTIONS
Arises from microorganisms outside of the patient. EXOGENOUS INFECTION
Cellular response to injury or infection INFLAMMATION
Microorganisms that cause another infection because they are resistant to antibiotics. A common example would be when a 20 year old female presents with UTI symptoms and is treated with an antibiotic, and follows up presenting yeast infection. SUPRA INFECTION [SUPRAINFECTION]
Infection developed that was not present at the time of patient admission. HCAI or Health care-associated infection
Methods to reduce or eliminate disease-producing microorganisms ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE
Microorganisms that do not cause disease, but help to maintain health FLORA
Process that eliminates all forms of microbial life Sterilization
Disease-producing microorganism Pathogen
Substance formed through the inflammatory process that may ooze from openings in the skin or mucus membranes Exudate
Microorganism that grows but does not cause disease COLONIZATION
Ability of microorganisms to produce disease VIRULENCE
Being more than normally vulnerable to disease SUSCEPTIBILITY
The nurse is preparing to complete a dressing change and notices the sterile package is torn. The nurse should: THROW THE TORN PACKAGE AWAY, AND GET A NEW STERILE ONE.
What results would be expected for the following lab studies in the presence of an infection? Iron Iron level--Decreased in chronic infections
What results would be expected for the following lab studies in the presence of an infection? WBC count White blood cell count elevated in acute infection and decreased in viral/overwhelming infection.
What results would be expected for the following lab studies in the presence of an infection? Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Elevated with infectious process
What results would be expected for the following lab studies in the presence of an infection? Neutrophils Elevated with acute, supportive infections, and decreased with overwhelming bacterial infections
What results would be expected for the following lab studies in the presence of an infection? Basophils REMAIN NORMAL DURING INFECTION
The major cause of helth care associated infections is: Poor hand hygiene
A patient's gastrointestinal defenses against infection are altered by: antacids and beta-blockers
Name the six links in the chain of infection 1. Infectious Agent 2. Mode of Transmission 3. Susceptible Host 4. Reservoir 5. Portal of Exit 6. Portal of Entry
An infectious disease transmitted directly from one person to another is considered a Communicable disease
Name the major resevior for Hepatitis A FECES
Name the major resevior for Hepatitis B. BLOOD AND SOME BODY FLUIDS
NAME THE MAJOR RESERVOIR FOR HEP C BLOOD
Name the major resevoir for Herpes simplex virus LESIONS OF THE MOUTH, SKIN, AND GENITALS
Name the major resevoir for Varicella - zoster virus (VZV or chickenpox) VESICLE FLUID, RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION
Name the major resevoir for malaria is BLOOD, INFECTED FEMALE ANOPHELES MOSQUITO.
Name the four modes of transmission for infection CONTACT, AIR, VEHICLES, VECTOR
Name the three types of contact modes of transmission DIRECT, INDIRECT, DROPLET
Give an example of Vehicle type transmission FOOD, BLOOD, WATER, DRUGS
Give an example of Vector based transmission MOSQUITO, TICK, FLEA
Defense mechanisms of the skin: -INTACT MULTILAYERED SURFACE -SHEDDING OF OUTER LAYER OF SKIN CELLS -SEBUM
Defense mechanisms of the mouth Intact multilayerd mucosa(Provides mechanical barrier to microorganisms) Saliva(Washes away particles containing microorganisms Contains microbial inhibitors e.g. lysozyme
Defense mechanisms of the respiratory tract: -CILIA LINING UPPER AIRWAYS, COATED BY STICKY MUCOUS BLANKET -MACROPHAGES (ENGULF AND DESTROY MICROORGANISMS THAT REACH LUNG'S ALVEOLI)
Defense mechanisms of the Urinary Tract: Flushing action of urine flow (Washes away microorgansims on lining of bladder and urethra) Intact multilayered epithelium(Provides barrier to microorganisms)
Defense mechanisms of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Acidity of gastric secretions (Chemically destroys microorganisms incappable of surviving low pH) Rapid peristalsis in small intestine(Prevents retention of bacterial contents)
Defense Mechanisms of the Vagina: At puberty, normal flora cause vaginal secretions to achieve low pH (Acidic secretions reduce growth of many microorganisms)
The body's cellular response to injury or infection is? INFLAMMATION
Signs of local inflammation SWELLING, REDNESS, HEAT, PAIN OR TENDERNESS, AND LOSS OF FUNCTION IN THE AFFECTED BODY PART
Signs of sytemic inflammation FEVER, LEUKOCYTOSIS, MALAISE, ANOREXIA, NAUSEA, VOMITING, AND LYMPH NODE ENLARGEMENT
Abnormal fluid below the skin caused by release of histamine, bradykinin, protaglandin, and serotonin, which increase blood vessel permeabilility. EDEMA
Improper surgical technique; improper skin prep before surgery (shaving or incorrect antiseptic scrub); improper aseptic technique during dressing change; patient risk factors such as malnutri are all factors that could contribute to which type of HCAI SURGICAL OR TRAUMATIC WOUND INFECTIONS
Which site is described by the potential causes for HCAI listed below: Improper skin prep before insertion of intravasular access device; failure to change intravenous site when inflammation first appears; contamination of intravenous fluids, needles, PRIMARY BLOODSTREAM INFECTION/SEPSIS
Which site is described by the potential causes for HCAI listed below: Improper aseptic technique during suctioning; displacement of nasogastric tube; use of H2 blocker/antacids; patient risk factors such ass immobility or decreased gag reflex PNEUMONIA
Which site is described by the potential causes for HCAI listed below: Improper insertion of urinary catheter; open or disconnected drainage system; improper specimen collection technique; obstruction of ;;; improper hand hygiene technique UTI (URINARY TRACT INFECTION)
Which site is described by the potential causes for HCAI listed below: Improper aseptic technique during pin care or dressing care BONE AND JOINT INFECTION
Which site is described by the potential causes for HCAI listed below: Improper aseptic technique during dressing change or following cardiac surgery CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM INFECTION
Which site is described by the potential causes for HCAI listed below: Improper aseptic techniques during dressing changes or during monitoring of intracranial monitoring device CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTION
Which site is described by the potential causes for HCAI listed below: Contaminated food or water; overuse of antibiotics GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM INFECTION
Which site is described by the potential causes for HCAI listed below: Improper skin care; patient risk factors such as poor nutrition and hydration SKIN AND SOFT TISSUE
Occurs when patients normal flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results (e.g., staphylococci, enterococci, yeasts, and streptococci) ENDOGENOUS INFECTION
comes from microorganisms outside the individual, such as Salmonella, Slostridiumtetani, and Aspergillus, which do not exist as normal flora. EXOGENOUS INFECTION
Lab tests to screen for infection: Normal WBC count Increased in acute infection, decreased in certain viral or overwhelming infections 4500-11000/MM3
Lab tests to screen for infection: Normal Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Elevated in presence of inflammatory process. UP TO 15MM/HR FOR MEN AND UP TO 20MM/HR FOR WOMEN
Lab tests to screen for infection: Normal Iron level Decreased in chronic infection 60-90MG/110ML
Lab tests to screen for infection: Normal values for cultures of blood Presence of microorganism growth may indicate infection NORMALLY STERILE, WITHOUT MICROORGANISM GROWTH
Lab tests to screen for infection: Normal Values for Cultures of wound, sputum, and throat Presence of microorganism growth may indicate infection Possible normal flora
Lab tests to screen for infection: Normal values for Urinalysis Nitrite and leukocyte positive, WBC greater than 20/mm3 Nirtrite and leukocyte negative, WBC 0-11/mm3 esterases
Lab tests to screen for infection Differential Count (Percentages of Each Type of WBC): Neutrophils Increased in acute infection, may be decreased in overwhelming bacterial infection(older adults). 55-70%
Lab tests to screen for infection Differential Count (Percentages of Each Type of WBC): Lymphocytes Increased in chronic bacerial and viral infection, decreased in sepsis 20-40%
Lab tests to screen for infection Differential Count (Percentages of Each Type of WBC): Monocytes Increased in protozoal, rickettsial, and tuberculosis infections 2-8%
Lab tests to screen for infection Differential Count (Percentages of Each Type of WBC): Eosinophils Increased in parasitic infection 1-4%
Lab tests to screen for infection Differential Count (Percentages of Each Type of WBC): Basophils Normal during infection 0.5-1%
How do basic medical aseptic techniques break the chain of infection? Control or Elimination of Infectious Agents
To control or eliminate this link in the chain of infection the nurse will: eliminate sources of body fluids, drainage, or solutions that possibly harbor microorganisms and discard disposable articles that become contaminated with infectious materials ReseRvoirs
The nurse understands that it is important to avoid talking, sneezing, or coughing directly over a surgical wound or sterile dressing field. As well as, careful handeling of body flu The nurse illustrates breaking which link in the chain of infection? Portals of Exit
By keeping soiled items away from clothing, wiping the stethoscope with alcohol between patients, and using hand hygiene the nurse demonstrates a break in which link of the chain of infection Transmission
includes the appropriate use of personal protection equipment such s gloves, masks or respirators, eyewear, and gowns to protect you from exposure to blood and body fluids ISOLATION OR BARRIER PROTECTION
Name the two tiers from the CDC Isolation Guidelines STANDARD PRECAUTIONS, TRANSMISSION CATEGORIES
The nurse understands that if a patient is under Airborne Tier Two of CDC Isolation Guidelines barrier protection should include: PRIVATE ROOM WITH NEGATIVE AIRFLOW AND MASK OR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION DEVICE.
The nurse understands that if a patient is under Droplet Tier Two of CDC Isolation Guidelines barrier protection should include: PRIVATE ROOM OR COHORT PATIENTS AND MASK
The nurse understands that if a patient is under Contact precautions Tier Two of CDC Isolation Guidelines barrier protection should include: PRIVATE ROOM OR COHORT PATIENTS, GLOVES AND GOWNS
The nurse understands that if a patient is under Protective Environment Tier Two of CDC Isolation Guidelines barrier protection should include: PRIVATE ROOM WITH POSITIVE AIRFLOW, GLOVES AND GOWN
Created by: stevencuzzilla