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Genetics Test Review

sex-linked gene gene located on the X or Y chromosome
Carrier a person who has one recessive allele for a trait and one dominant allele
pedigree A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
genetic disorder An abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
mutation A change in a gene or chromosome
genetic engineering genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism
cloning Making a genetically identical copy of an organism.
hybridization Breeding technique that involves crossing two genetically different individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
inbreeding A selective breeding method in which two individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed.
selective breeding The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
Gregor Mendel Father of genetics
dominant allele An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
recessive allele An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Genotype genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
Homozygous having two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
Purebred An organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent.
Hybrid Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Trait physical characteristic of an organism
Allele Different forms of a gene
gene the factor that controls physical characteristics
Heredity Passing of traits from parents to offspring
Adenine Nitrogen base that pairs with Thymine in DNA
Cytosine Nitrogen base that pairs with Guanine in DNA
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Guanine Nitrogen base that pairs with Cytosine in DNA
Double Helix Spiral shape of DNA
Thymine Nitrogen base that pairs with Adenine in DNA
Replication Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
Uracil Nitrogen base that pairs with adenine in RNA
nucleus Where DNA is located
Ribosomes site of protein synthesis
Watson, Crick, and Franklin Discovered DNA
RNA A single-stranded nucleic acid that passes along genetic messages
Created by: lipscold
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