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Science Quarterly #1

Science Quarterly #1 Guide

Biosphere Contains all living organisms
Geosphere The solid metal inner core, liquid metal outer core, and rocky mantle and crust of Earth
Hydrosphere All of Earth's water (including rain, snow, hail, and sleet)
Cryosphere The frozen part of the hydrosphere
Atmosphere The thin envelope around the Earth made up of gasses and air.
Positive feedback A system that keeps going, speeds up, or helps a process
Negative feedback A system that slows down or reverses a process
Constructive forces Forces that build up the land
Destructive forces Forces that wear away or destroy the land
Landforms Natural features of the Earth (mountains, coastlines, dunes, lakes, rivers, and plains)
Topography The shape of the land that includes relief, elevation, and landforms
Water cycle The continual movement of water among Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surface through evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
Evaporation When a liquid changes to the state of a gas
Condensation When a gas changes to the state of a liquid
Precipitation Any form of water that falls to Earth's surface (rain, snow, hail, sleet)
Transpiration When water enters a leave's roots and comes out it's leaves as water vapor
Watersheds The land area that supplies water to a river system
Aquifers Underground layers of rock that stores or holds water
Glaciers Any large mass of ice that moves slowly over land
Mesosphere The layer of the atmosphere that is directly above stratosphere
Stratosphere The layer of the atmosphere that contains the most ozone
Thermosphere The uppermost layer of the atmosphere with the lowest density of air
Troposphere The layer where Earth's weather occurs. It is closest to Earth's surface
Air pressure The air that experts a force on you
Density The density of air decreases at higher attitude because there is less pressure forcing the air molecules together. Density increases at lower altitudes
Humidity A measure of the amount of water vapor in the air
Sleet Raindrops that fall through a layer of air below 0°C freeze into solid particles of ice before they hit the ground
Freezing rain The raindrops that freeze when they hit a cold surface
Hail A round pellet of ice (at least 5 milometers in diameter)
Snow Forms when water vapor in a cloud is converted directly into ice crystals that clump together
Maritime tropical It's hot, humid, and it forms over water
Continental tropical It's hot, dry, and it forms over land
Maritime polar It's cold, humid, and it forms over water
Continental polar It's cold, dry, and it forms over land
Gulf stream The largest and most powerful surface current in the North Atlantic Ocean. It brings water up from the Gulf of Mexico to the east coast
Occluded front When a warm mass gets caught between two cold air masses
Warm front A fast moving warm mass overtakes a slower-moving cold air mass
Cold front A cold air mass runs into a warm air mass
Stationary front Cold and warm masses meet, but neither one can move each other
Hurricanes When a cyclone's winds exceed 119km/h
Cyclones A swirling center of low air pressure
Meteorologist A scientist who predicts and studies weather
Barometric pressure When air pressure rises, you have clear weather. When air pressure decreases, you have stormy weather
How would you prepare for a thunderstorm Get and stay indoors. It's safe to stay in your car and find a low area from trees, poles, and fences
How would you prepare for a hurricane May have to evacuate or move temporarily if there's a warning and you're told to leave
How would you prepare for a tornado Go to a safe area quickly. Move to the middle ground floor and stay away from windows and doors
How would you prepare for a winter storm Stay or get indoors and keep a supply of food and water on hand in case of power outages
Lake snow effect A cold, dry air mass moves southeast across the lakes, picking up water vapor and heat. As it reaches the other side of the lake, the air rises and cool again causing the water vapor to condense and fall as snow
Created by: 28lins
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