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Unit 4 Heredity

Inheritance of Traits

TermDefinition
Heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
Recessive Allele an allele that is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present
Phenotype an organism's physical appearance or visible traits
Pedigree a tool that geneticists use to map out the inheritance of traits
Chromatids the structure formed when a chromosome divides during meiosis
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring
Transfer RNA type of RNA in the cytoplasm that carries amino acid to the ribosome during protein synthesis
Autosomal Chromosomes the 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
Sex-linked Genes a gene carried on a sex chromosome
Genetic Engineering the transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits
Clone an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
Trait a specific characteristic that an organism can pass to its offspring through its genes
Fertilization the process in sexual reproduction in which an egg cell and a sperm cell join to form a new cell
Gene a sequence of DNA that determines a trait and is passed from parent to offspring
Hybrid the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties, such as a mule (a hybrid of a donkey and a horse)
Homozygous having two identical alleles of a particular gene or genes
Incomplete Dominance when a dominant allele, or form of a gene, does not completely mask the effects of a recessive allele
Multiple Alleles an allele of a genetic locus having more than two allelic forms within a population
Carrier an individual who carries and is capable of passing on a genetic mutation associated with a disease and may or may not display disease symptoms
Karyotype process of pairing and ordering all the chromosomes of an organism, thus providing a genome-wide snapshot of an individual's chromosomes
Inbreeding the mating of organisms closely related by ancestry
Dominant Allele an allele whose trait always shows up in an organism when the allele is present
Genotype an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
Chromosome a threadlike structure within a cell's nucleus that contains DNA that is passed from one generation to the next
Meiosis the process that occurs in the formation of sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
Mitosis the second stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one set of DNA is distributed into each daughter cell
Messenger RNA type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to ribosomes in the cytoplasm
Sex Chromosomes the pair of chromosomes carrying genes that determine whether a person is biologically female or male
Mutation any change in the DNA of a gene or a chromosome
Artificial Selection the process by which humans breed only those organisms with desired traits to produce the next generation; selective breeding
Gene Therapy the process of replacing an absent or faulty gene with a normal working gene to treat a disease or medical disorder
Genome the complete set of genetic information that an organism carries in its DNA
Genetics the study of heredity in general and of genes in particular
Purebred HOMOZYGOUS and consists of gene pairs with genes that are the SAME; bred from parents of the same breed or variety
Allele a different form of a gene
Punnett Square table in which all of the possible outcomes for a genetic cross between two individuals with known genotypes are given
Heterozygous having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes
Codominance A condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed, with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other
Polygenic Inheritance the heredity of complex characters that are determined by a large number of genes, each one usually having a relatively small effect
Genetic Disorder disease caused in whole or in part by a change in the DNA sequence away from the normal sequence
Hybridization process of combining two complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules and allowing them to form a single double-stranded molecule through base pairing
Ethics philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct
Created by: Ms. Wright
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