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Genetics Unit Vocabu

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Heredity Passing of traits from parents to offspring
Trait A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
Genetics The scientific study of heredity
Fertilization Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
Purebred the offspring of many generations that have the same traits
Gene A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Allele Different forms of a gene
Dominant allele An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
Recessive allele An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Hybrid Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Punnett square A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Phenotype An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
Genotype genetic makeup of an organism
Homozygous An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
Incomplete dominance Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
Codominance A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
Multiple alleles three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
Polygenic inheritance combined effect of two or more genes on a single character
Messenger RNA RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
Transfer RNA type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
Mutation A change in a gene or chromosome.
Sex chromosomes Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
Sex-linked gene gene located on a sex chromosome
Carrier A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype.
Genetic disorder An abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
Pedigree A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
Karyotype A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Selective breeding The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
Inbreeding Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Hybridization Breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
Clone An organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
Genetic engineering Process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
Gene therapy The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
Genome the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
Ethics the principles of right and wrong that guide an individual in making decisions
Meiosis Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Crossing Over Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Zygote fertilized egg
Gametes sex cells
Protein Synthesis the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
Autosomal Chromosomes 22 chromosome pairs that control traits NOT related to gender--same in females and males.
Created by: jyanez
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