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enzymes and reaction

Monomer a small chemical unit that makes up a polymer
Polymer large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
Hydrolysis Breaking down complex molecules by adding water
Dehydration Synthesis Building up new materials from simple substances by losing water
Enzyme Definition PROTEIN made by organisms that speed up the rate of chemical reactions (process that rearranges substances)
Enzymes - Catalysts Substances that can speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed or used up during the reaction
How does an enzyme work? By lowering the activation energy required for a reaction to start
Substrate Material an enzyme acts upon
Lock and Key Model Enzymes are SHAPE SPECIFIC; they fit their substrates like a key in a lock
Active Site The place a substrate fits into the enzyme
Denature Enzyme loses its specific shape, so it cannot interact with its substrate anymore
Enzyme Examples Pepsin, bromelain, lipase, amylase, protease, lactase (usually ends in -ase)
pH Measure of how acidic or basic something is on a scale of 0-14
pH 0-6 Acidic; lower number = more acidic
pH 7 Neutral; water; blood is 7.4
pH 8-14 Basic; higher number = more basic
How does temperature affect enzyme activity? Enzymes each have an optimum temperature at which they function most efficiently; outside this range they can work slower or denature (change shape)
How does pH affect enzyme activity? Enzymes each have an optimum pH where they function most efficiently; outside this range they can denature (change shape)
How does the amount of substrate affect enzyme activity? As concentration (amount) of substrate or enzyme increases, the enzyme rate increases up until the point where the rate stabilizes because the enzyme molecules are working at their maximum rate. This is called the saturation point.
Created by: nmalone
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