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Yr 10 Genetics Vocab

Vocabulary for Yr 10 Genetics & Evolution Topic

Mutation A change in the DNA of an organism. This can make a new allele.
Trait A feature controlled by genes (e.g. eye colour).
Evolution A gradual process of change in the traits of a species over many generations.
Gene A section of DNA that codes for a particular trait / feature (e.g. eye colour).
Chromosome A structure made of DNA and found in the nucleus of cells.
Clone An organism produced by asexual reproduction (or cloning) of one parent. It is genetically identical to its parent.
Mutagen Any factor which increases the chance of a mutation occurring.
Variation Differences between the individuals of a species.
Alleles Different forms of the same gene. They can be dominant or recessive.
Cells The basic unit of a living thing. It includes a nucleus, which contains the DNA.
Reproduction The creation of a new individual from previously existing individuals.
Asexual Reproduction The creation of a new individual which has DNA from just one parent, to which it is identical.
Sexual Reproduction The creation of a new individual which has DNA from two parents.
Dominant Allele The form of a gene which is always shown, even if only one is present. Represented with a capital letter (e.g. ‘H’).
Recessive Allele The form of the gene which is only shown when two are present. Represented with a lower-case letter (e.g. ‘h’).
DNA The molecule which carries the genetic information of an organism.
Offspring The next generation of young, resulting from reproduction.
Nucleus The part of a cell which contains the DNA (in the form of chromosomes).
Natural Selection The process in which individuals which have an advantage in their environment tend to survive and reproduce, passing on their alleles.
Continuous Variation When a broad range of measurements are possible for a trait (e.g. height).
Fertilisation When a male gamete (sperm) fuses with a female gamete (egg / ovum).
Discontinuous Variation When a trait falls into a particular category (e.g. human blood groups).
Pure-Breeding When an organism has two matching alleles for a gene (e.g. ‘HH’ or ‘hh’).
Created by: CMontaperto
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