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ENERGY

QuestionAnswer
What is the name of the forms of energy that can be stored? Potential energies
Name 4 forms of energy that can be stored (potential energies) chemical, gravitational, elastic and nuclear energy
Name 5 forms of energy that cannot be stored Kinetic, light, sound, thermal, electrical energy
Give three sources of chemical energy A battery, oil and food are three sources of chemical energy
What is the energy transfer when an object falls from a height? Gravitational energy -> kinetic energy
What is the energy transfer carried out by a dynamo on a bicycle (or by the alternator in a power plant)? Kinetic energy -> electrical energy
What is the energy transfer performed by a motor in an ELECTRIC car? Electrical energy -> kinetic energy
What is the energy transfer of a petrol engine in a car (hint: petrol is burning in the engine) Chemical energy -> kinetic energy
What is the energy transfer carried out by an electric lamp connected to the mains? Electrical energy -> light energy
What is the energy transfer made by solar photovoltaic cell ? Light energy -> electrical energy
CHALLENGE: What is the energy transfer performed in a flashlight that works with batteries? (2 steps) Chemical energy (in batteries) -> electrical energy (in wires) -> light energy
What is the definition of "efficiency of an object"? The percentage of useful energy compared to the initial quantity of energy supplied; yield = useful / initial x100
Explain why LEDs have replaced incandescent lamps? LEDs consume less electrical energy than incandescent lamps for the same brightness; LEDs need less electricity, they are more efficient so less fossil fuels or uranium are needed
Calculate the energy dissipated (wasted) for an incandescent lamp which receives 120J of electric energy and which emits 65J of light Energy dissipated = energy received - useful energy = 120-65 = 55J (as a reminder :: formula-figures-calculation-units )
What is the form of dissipated (wasted) energy for an incandescent lamp which receives 120J of electric energy and which emits 65J of light The lamp loses energy in the form of heat (thermal energy)
Calculate the efficiency of an incandescent lamp which receives 120J of electric energy and which emits 65J of light efficiency = 100 x energie useful / energy received = 100x65 / 120 = 54.2% (as a reminder: formula-figures-calculation-units)
What is the energy transfer taking place in a lamp? Electric -> Light (useful energy) + Thermal (waste energy)
What is the energy transfer taking place in a n ELECTRIC motor? Electric -> Kinetic (useful energy) + Thermal (waste energy)
What is the energy transfer taking place in a wind turbine? Kinetic -> Electric (useful energy) + Thermal (waste energy)
What is the energy transfer taking place in a dynamo on a bicycle? Kinetic -> Electric (useful energy) + Thermal (waste energy)
What is the energy transfer taking place in a turbine on a dam? Kinetic -> Electric (useful energy) + Thermal (waste energy)
What is the energy transfer taking place in in a battery? Chemical -> Electric (useful energy) + Thermal (waste energy)
What is the energy transfer taking place during the combustion of coal in a coal-fired power station? Chemical -> thermal (energy useful for heating water) + thermal (energy wasted when the surrounding air is heated)
What is the energy transfer taking place during the boiling of water into steam in a coal-fired power station? Thermal -> Kinetic (useful energy) + Thermal (waste energy)
What is the energy transfer taking place in the turbine in a coal-fired power station? Kinetic -> Electric (useful energy) + Thermal (waste energy)
Name 4 non-renewable energy sources Uranium, gas, crude oil, coal
Describe how fossil fuels were formed Energy sources that come from the anerobic (Oxygen-free) decomposition of Plants (coal) or plankton (oil) under Pressure when covered by Sediments over Millions of years POMPS
Name 5 renewable energy sources Wind (wind), solar, hydraulic or hydro-electricity (dams), biomass, geothermal energy (Please note that Charcoal is a renewable source of energy!)
What is the main source of energy in France for producing electricity? Uranium (non-renewable)
What is the main source of energy in Germany for producing electricity? Coal (non-renewable)
What is the main source of energy in Uganda for producing electricity? Hydroelectric (renewable)
Describe how a hydroelectric power station works Water FALLS from the top of a lake, spins a TURBINE, which spins a GENERATOR. The generator converts kinetic energy into electrical energy
Which activity consumes the most energy in houses in France heating is the activity that consumes the most energy in houses in France
How can we reduce energy expenditure in homes (in France)? By reducing the share of heating in energy-consuming activities
How can we reduce the loss of heating energy in a house in France? Insulate the roof, floor and walls, double-glazing on the windows, block drafts under the doors
Cite an advantage of producing electricity using a hydraulic dam (hydro-electricity) other than renewable energy) Electricity is produced 24 hours a day, immediately
Cite an advantage of producing electricity using a geothermal source other than renewable energy) Electricity is produced 24 hours a day, immediately
Cite a disadvantage of producing electricity using a geothermal source Volcanic activity is required
Cite a disadvantage of producing electricity using the sun 1) Electricity is only produced during the day or / and batteries are needed to store the electricity; 2) low electricity production
Cite a disadvantage of producing electricity using wind 1) You need wind! 2) low production of electricity 3) some say that wind turbines spoil the landscape and make noise
Name two advantages of producing electricity using a renewable energy source No production of CO2 therefore no greenhouse effect (note that biomass produces CO2 but if new plants have been planted, the CO2 produced is absorbed by plants); maintenance costs are low
What is an energy source? It is the set of raw materials, or natural phenomena, which make it possible to produce energy
What is the disadvantage of using a hydraulic dam to generate electricity Ecosystems are destroyed
What are the signs of global warming is taking place? Sudden storms, floods, stronger hurricanes, droughts, Ecosystems are destroyed
Name 3 greenhouse gases CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (Methane) and H2O (water vapor)
Describe how greenhouse gases cause global warming 1) Earth absorbs UV /visible from the sun; 2) Earth emits IR 3) Greenhouse gases absorb IR; 4 and re-emit IRs towards the earth; more CO2 = less IR leaves Earth
What are the human activities that increase the CO2 concentration? Combustion of fossil fuels (gas, coal and oil), deforestation
What are the natural activities that increase the CO2 concentration? Volcanoes, forest fires
What are the natural activities that reduce the CO2 concentration? Plants (photosynthesis); Oceans (absorption); limestone rock formation (calcium carbonate)
Describe how you can reduce your contribution to the increase in CO2 concentration Reduce energy consumption; (shower rather than baths; halogen bulb); use public transport
Describe how governments can reduce the contribution to the increase in CO2 concentration Encourage renewable energies; Encourage production of electric vehicles; encourage public transport
Is there a correlation between the level of CO2 concentration and the increase in the global temperature? Yes we can say the more the CO2 rate increases, the more the global temperature increases BUT this relation is not valid all the time: some years the global temperature decreases although the CO2 rate increases
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