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Chemistry pt.1 and 2

Study Stack #4

define atoms atoms make up matter
define electrons-know where they are found and what the charge is found outside nucleus, has a negative charge
define protons-know where they are found and what the charge is found inside nucleus, has positive charge
define neutrons-know where they are found and what the charge is found inside nucleus, has no charge
define element made up of one type of atom
define molecule atoms of the same element bonded together
define compound made up of two or more different elements that combine chemically
define mixture and give an example made of substances that combine physically (ex: trail mix or chex mix)
explain the difference between a solution a suspension. a solution is two or more substances that are mixed evenly, but suspensions are when gas or liquid has another substance evenly spread together.
give an example of solution saline solution
give an example of suspension oil and water or kool-aid that has too much sugar, and the sugar sinks down
explain why blood is suspension The red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets spread evenly, the heart keeps the blood flowing and the blood cells suspended
Explain the difference between inorganic and organic compounds inorganic carbons are made from elements other than carbon, and organic carbons contain carbon
What are three reasons water is important? -living things are made up of 50% or more water -needed for chemical reactions -used to transport materials through organisms
define carbohydrates supply energy for cell processes
What are the three characteristics of lipids? -fats and oils;do not mix with water -release a larger amount of energy than carbohydrates;harder to break down -found in cell membranes;make cell membrane selectively permeable because fats and oils do not mix with water
Since lipids have more energy stored in their bonds, why does the body get more use able energy from carbohydrates? carbohydrates are easier to break down than lipids so the body uses less energy to get new energy from the carbohydrate bonds
What are proteins made up of? amino acids
What are the two uses of protein in the body? -makes up many structures like muscle -make up enzymes-regulate all chemical reactions in cell; can speed up the rate of a reaction
What are nucleic acids? stores coded information for cells in DNA
Define DNA and state where it is located in the cell. deoxyribonucleic acid directs activities of the cell it is located in the nucleus
Define enzymes. What makes up an enzymes? Enzymes regulate all chemical reactions in cell;can speed up the rate of a reaction -made up of proteins
Why is mitochondria important? *include cristae* Mitochondria is important because it breaks down glucose for energy. The cristae increases the surface area so more glucose can be broken down and more energy can be produced.
Explain the one enzyme- one substrate theory. An enzyme will only bond with a specific substrate. The substance is changed into a new substance but the enzyme is not. The enzyme can continue bonding with other similar specific substrates and is not used up.
Define passive transport movement of substances through the cell membrane without using energy
define osmosis and diffusion osmosis is the movement of water from an area of high concentration to low concentration to reach equilibrium and diffusion is the same thing, except diffusion is the movement of molecules other than water
what is the isotonic solution isotonic: H2O enters and leaves at the same rate because H20 concentration is equal inside and outside of the cell -stable and in equilibrium
define hypertonic solution greater concentration of H20 inside the cell so more H20 leaves the cell to try and reach equilibrium
define hypotonic solution greater concentration of H20 outside the cell so more H20 enters the cell trying to reach equilibrium
Why are diffusion and osmosis important? The make sure the cell maintains equilibrium
define active transport energy is needed to move molecules across a cell membrane. It is needed to move from an area of lesser concentration to an areaof higher concentration
what is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis? endocytosis lets parts of the cell membrane form around the particles to make a vesicle and bring it into the cell and exocytosis is a vesicle that makes its way to the cell membrane, fuses with it, and releases the contents to the outside.
what organelle uses exocytosis golgi bodies
what is the relationship between an enzyme and substrate Enzymes- a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction without being changed or used up itself. -substrate- the molecule that an enzyme attaches to and it changed into 2 new substances
what is the relationship between enzymes and ribosomes Ribosomes make proteins and enzymes are proteins. So, if ribosomes don’t function properly the correct enzymes will not be made.
define facilitated diffusion molecules are too large to pass across cell membrane and use transport molecules allow them to enter and leave. -I.e.) like the window in a drive through
what is the relationship between ribosomes and golgi bodies? Ribosomes make proteins which the golgi apparatus modifies and then packages in vesicles to be shipped out of the cell.
What is the relationship between chloroplasts and mitochondria? Chloroplasts make glucose and mitochondria break glucose for energy. Plants have both. Animals only have mitochondria.
What is the difference between lipids and proteins? Why do cells get more energy from carbohydrates? lipids made of fats and oils: don't mix with water,they also release more energy than carbohydrates and provide energy for the cells and the proteins are made of amino acids and make up enzymes . The carbohydrate's bonds are easier to break
What is the difference between a control group and experimental group? control: no variables are changed (used for comparison) experimental: one variable is changed
What is the difference between independent and dependent varible? independent: IF... the part of the experiment that causes
Define hypothesis Answer to a question or a possible explanation to a question _uses the word affect_
Define prediction An If-then statement: happens before the answer to the question is actually determined
Sally made an experiment, testing the effect of coffee on plant growth. Prediction:If the plant absorbs coffee then the growth of the plant will decreaseHypothesis:The coffee will affect the growth of the plantControl:water going into the plantExperimental: coffee going into the plantIndependent: coffee Dependent:growth
Aligator Eggs + Monkey Cookies Atoms make up matter, elements are made up of one type of atom, molecules are made of the same element bonded together, compounds are made up of two or more different elements that combine chemically
Created by: 23efritz
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