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Unit 3: Cells

Cell Structures and Processes Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Cell the basic unit of structure and function in living things
Microscope an instrument that makes small objects look larger
Cell Theory a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
Distinguish to recognize something as different
Organelle a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
Cell Wall a rigid supporting layer that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
Cell Membrane a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds a cell and controls which substances pass into and out of a cell
Cytoplasm the thick fluid region of a cell located inside the cell membrane (in prokaryotes) or between the cell membrane and nucleus (in eukaryotes)
Nucleus in cells, a large oval organelle that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cell's activities
Mitochondria rod-shaped organelles that convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions
Chloroplast an organelle in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and changes it to an energy form that cells can use in making food
Vacuole a sac-like organelle that stores water, food, and other materials
Structure the way something is built or arranged
Function an activity or purpose natural to or intended for a person or thing
Selectively permeable a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass across it, while others cannot
Diffusion the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Osmosis the diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane
Endocytosis the process by which the cell membrane takes particles into the cell by changing shape and engulfing the particles
Exocytosis the process by which the vacuole surrounding particles fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell
Maintain to keep in an existing state
Cell cycle the series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells
Interphase the first stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs, during which a cell grows and makes a copy of its DNA
Replication the process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus before cell division
Mitosis the second stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one set of DNA is distributed into each daughter cell
Cytokinesis the final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new daughter cells
Sequence a particular order in which related events follow each other
Photosynthesis the process by which plants and other autotrophs capture and use light energy to make food from carbon dioxide and water
Autotroph an organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food
Heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food and gets food by consuming other living things
Chlorophyll a green photosynthetic pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
Cellular Respiration the process in which oxygen and glucose undergo a complex series of chemical reactions inside cells, releasing energy
Fermentation the process by which cells release energy by breaking down food molecules without oxygen
Produce to make from components or raw materials
Source a place, person, or thing from which something can be obtained
Created by: Ms. Wright
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