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Pharmacology chp1-4

Kee Chapter 1-4 flashcards

Active Absorption Movement of drug particles from the gastrointestinal tract to body fluids; requires a carrier, such as an enzyme or protein, to move the drug against a concentration gradient.
adverse reactions reactions to drugs that are more severe than side effects.
agonists drugs that produce a response
antagonists drugs that block a response
bioavailability the percentage of an administered drug dose that reaches the systemic circulation
creatinine clearance a diagnostic test that determines renal function.
disintegration the breakdown of tablet into smaller particles.
dissolution the dissolving of the smaller particles of a tablet in the gastrointestinal fluid before absorption.
distribution the process by which the drug becomes available to body fluids and body tissues
duration of action the length of time a drug has a pharmacologic effect.
elimination excretion of a drug, mainly through the kidneys. Other routes of elimination include hepatic metabolism, bile, feces, lungs, saliva, sweat, and breast milk.
excipients fillers and inert substances found in tablets
first pass effects the process in which a drug passes to the liver first
free drugs drugs not bound to protein
half life (t1/2) the time it takes for one half of a drug concentration to be eliminated
high therapeutic index drugs with a wide margin of safety and less danger of producing toxic effects
ligand binding domain the site on the receptor in which drugs bind
loading dose a large initial dose of drug given when an immediate drug response is desired to achieve a rapid minimum effective concentration in the plasma
low therapeutic index drug with a narrow margin of safety for which drug effect should be closely monitored
metabolism occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and liver; however, the liver is the primary site.
nonselective drugs drugs that affect various receptors
nonspecific drugs drugs that affect various sites
onset of action the time it takes to reach the minimum effective concentration (MEC) after a drug is administered
passive absorption movement of drug particles from the gastrointestinal tract to body fluids that occurs mostly by diffusion (movement from higher concentration to lower concentration)
peak action occurs when the drug reaches its highest blood or plasma concentration
peak drug level the highest plasma concentration of a drug at a specific time
pharmaceutic phase the first phase of drug action
pharmacodynamics the study of drug concentration and its effects on the body
pharmacogenetics the effect of a drug action that varies from a predicted drug response because of genetic factors or hereditary influence
pharmacokinetics the process of drug movement to achieve drug action
pinocytosis the process by which cells carry drugs across the membrane by engulfing the drug particles
placebo effect a psychologic benefit from a compound that may not have the chemical structure of a drug effect
rate limiting the time it takes a drug to disintegrate and dissolve, becoming available for the body to absorb it
receptor families four families, including kinase-linked receptors, ligand gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptor systems, and nuclear receptors
side effects physiologic effects of drugs not related to desired drug effects
tachyphylaxis a rapid decrease in response to a drug
therapeutic index estimates the margin of safety of a drug through the use of a ratio that measures the effective (therapeutic or concentration) dose (ED) in 50% of persons or animals (ED50) and the lethal dose (LD) in 50% of animals (LD50)
therapeutic window the range of drug concentration in plasma, which should be between the minimum effective concentration in the plasma for obtaining a desired drug action and the minimum toxic concentration, or the toxic effect
time response curve evaluates three parameters of drug action: the onset of drug action, peak action, and the duration of action.
tolerance a decreased responsiveness over the course of drug therapy
toxic effects (toxicity) the first adverse symptoms that occur at a particular dose. Toxic effects can be identified by monitoring the plasma therapeutic range of the drug
trough drug level the lowest plasma concentration of a drug, which measures the rate at which the drug is eliminated
assessment the first phase of the nursing process. Data provided by the assessment form the basis on which care is planned, implemented, and evaluated. Data collection involves both subjective and objective information
culturally sensitive an awareness of the culture implications for a client and/or the client's family
evaluation the phase of the nursing process that addresses the effectiveness of health teaching about drug therapy and the attainment of goals
goal setting expected outcomes for a client, determined during the planning phase of the nursing process.
implementation the phase of the nursing process that includes the nursing actions and interventions necessary to accomplish the established goals or expected outcomes
nursing diagnosis a diagnosis made by a registered nurse based on analysis of the assessment data
planning the phase of the nursing process characterized by goal setting or expected outcomes; it also includes development of nursing interventions that will be used to assist the client in meeting outcomes.
absorption movement of drug particles from the gastrointestinal tract to body fluids
buccal medication placed between the gum and the cheek
cumulative effect when a drug is metabolized or excreted more slowly than the rate at which it is being administered
distribution the process by which a drug becomes available to body fluids and body tissues
informed consent ensuring an individual has the knowledge necessary to make a medical decision, which is critical to preventing medication errors.
inhalation medications given via aerosol sprays
instillations medications given in the nose, eyes, and ears
intradermal a type of injection usually used for observation of an inflammatory reaction to foreign proteins
intramuscular a type of injection used for irritating drugs, aqueous suspensions, and solutions in oils
intravenous an injection in an accessible peripheral vein
meniscus the line for determining the desired dose of a liquid drug
metered dose inhaler hand held devices that deliver medications to oropharyngeal and lower respiratory tract
parenteral medication administered intradermally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously
pharmacogenetics the effect of a drug action that varies from a predicted drug response because of genetic factors or hereditary influence
right assessment collecting appropriate data before administration of a drug
right client identifying a client as the correct client before medication is administered. Joint Commission requires two forms of ID prior to the administration of a medication.
right documentation requires that the nurse immediately record the appropriate information about the drug administered. This includes the name of the drug, the dose, the route, the time/date, and the nurse's initials or signature.
right dose the dose prescribed for a particular client
right drug determining that a client receives the drug that was prescribed
right evaluation requires that the effectiveness of a medication be determined by the client's response to the medication
right route administering the correct form of a drug to ensure appropriate absorption
right time the time at which a prescribed dose should be administered
right to education requires that a client receive accurate and thorough information about a medication and how it relates to his/her situation
right to refuse a client's choice to decide against taking a medication
spacers devices used to enhance the delivery of medications from metered dose inhalers
stock drug method process by which drugs are dispensed to all clients from the same containers
subcutaneous an injection used for small doses of nonirritating water soluble drugs
sublingual medication placed under the tongue for venous absorption
suppository medication administered rectally or vaginally
tolerance a decreased responsiveness over the course of drug therapy
topical medication applied to the skin
transdermal medication stored in a patch placed on the skin and absorbed through the skin, thereby having a systemic effect
unit dose method process by which drugs are individually wrapped and labeled for single dose
Z-track technique an injection that prevents medication from leaking back into the subcutaneous tissue. It is frequently advised for medications that cause visible and permanent skin discolorations
ampule a glass container with a tapered neck for snapping open and using only once
basic formula the most frequently used formula for calculating drug dosages
body surface area the most accurate method to calculate the drug dose for infants, children, older adults, and clients who are on antineoplastic agents or whose body weight is low
body weight the method of calculations that allows for the individualization of the drug dose; considered safe in the administration of drugs to children
bolus drugs given by intravenous push
capsules gelatin shells that contain powder or time released pellets
diluent bacteriostatic water or saline
dimensional analysis a calculation method known as units and conversions; has the advantage of a decreased number of steps required to calculate a drug dosage
dram a unit of measurement of fluid volume in the apothecary system; used infrequently.
drop factor the number of drops per milliliter
electronic IV regulators pumps used in hospitals and some community settings that deliver a prescribed rate of intravenous solution. If the flow rate is obstructed, an alarm sounds.
enteric coated hard shelled tablets
guage diameter of the lumen
grain unit of weight in the apothecary system
insulin syringe a syringe of administering insulin; has a capacity of 1 ml
intradermal an injection usually used for skin testing to diagnose the cause of an allergy or to determine the presence of a microorganism
intramuscular injections absorbed more rapidly than those given by subcutaneous injection
IV piggyback two intravenous sets available to administer intravenous drugs: the calibrated cylinder with tubing and the secondary intravenous set
keep vein open (KVO) intravenous fluids given at a slow rate because of a suspected or potential emergency situation requiring rapid administration of fluids and drugs and the need for an open line to give intravenous drugs at specified hours
lumen the cavity of a needle
macrodrip set a set that delivers large drops per milliliter (10-20 gtt/ml)
microdrip set a set that delivers small drops per milliliter (60 gtt/ml)
nonvolumetric regulator designed to infuse at a drop rate in drops per minute
parenteral medications administered intradermally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously
patient controlled analgesia (PCA) a method used to administer IV drugs by providing a uniform serum concentration of drug, thus avoiding drug peaks and valleys. This method is designed to meet the needs of clients who require at least 24-48 hours of regular IM narcotic injections.
primary intravenous line set the continuous, main IV for administering drugs
secondary intravenous line set separate tubing connected to the primary IV line set through a port for administering IV drugs
subcutaneous drugs injected into the fatty tissue that are absorbed slowly because there are fewer blood vessels in fatty tissue
sustained release a drug that delivers medication over an extended amount of time
tablets a small, solid form of a medication. Most tablets are scored and thus can be readily broken when half of the drug amount is needed.
to keep open IV fluids given at a slow rate because of a suspected or potential emergency situation requiring rapid administration of fluids and drugs and the need for an open line to give IV drugs at specified hours.
tuberculin syringe a 1 ml slender syringe with markings in tenths and hundredths
vial a small glass container with a self-sealing rubber top
volumetric regulator delivers a specific volume of fluid at a specific rate in milliliters per hour
Created by: 705757596
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