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Chapter 6

Human Development

Chapter 6 psychosocial development during the 1st 3 years.
The relatively consistent blend of emotions, temperament, thought and behavior that makes a person unique personality.
personality development is intertwined with social relationships psychosocial development.
subjective reactions to experience that are associated with psychological and behavioral changes emotions.
What are early signals to babies’ feelings that are indicators of development? Smiling, cooing, reaching out, going to person.
What are highlights of a child’s psychosocial development at birth to 3 months? Open to stimulation, show curiosity, interest, smile.
What are highlights of a child, psychosocial development at 3 to 6 months? Can anticipate, become angry, be weary, smiled, coo, laugh.
When does the time of “social awakening” and early reciprocal exchanges between baby and caregiver? Age 3 to 6 months.
What are highlights of a child’s psychosocial development at 6 to 9 months? Play social games, tried to get responses from people, talked, touch, express differentiated emotions, showed joy, fear, anger, surprise.
What are highlights of a child’s psychosocial development at 9 to 12 months? Preoccupied with caregiver, afraid of strangers, communicate emotions, show moods, gradations of feelings.
What are highlights of a child’s psychosocial development at 12 to 18 months? Explorer, use people they are attached to as a secure base, mastered the environment, more calm bedding, more eager to assert themselves.
What are the highlights of a child’s psychosocial development at 18 to 36 months? Can be anxious, identify with adulthood, workout limitations in fantasy.
What is the most powerful and sometimes the only way infants commit can communicate their needs? Crying.
What are the 4 patterns of crying? Hunger cry, angry cry, pain cry, frustration cry.
a rhythmic cry, which is not always associated with hunger hunger cry
a variation of the rhythmic cry, in which excess air is forced through the vocal cords anger cry
a sudden onset of loud crying without preliminary moaning, sometimes followed by holding the breath pain cry
2 or 3 drawn out cries, with no prolonged breath holding frustration cry.
What is the best way to handle a babies crying? Most developmentally sound-prevent distress, making soothing unnecessary.
When do faint smile start to appear on a newborn? Spontaneously after birth until about the 3rd month, involuntary smile during periods of REM sleep.
Why do smiles during REM sleep cycles become less frequent during the 1st 3 months? Cortex matures.
Explain the cycle of waking smiles during the first 4 months. 2nd week-smile after feeding, 3rd week-smile when alert and paying attention to caregiver, 1 month-smiles are more frequent, social, 2 months-smile at visual stimuli, 4 months-laugh out loud when kissed or tickled
When babies laugh at the unexpected, what does it show? That they know what to expect.
Emotional development is an orderly process in which complex emotions _. Unfold from simpler ones.
What are 3 emotions that baby show. Soon after birth? Content Mae, interest, distress.
What emotions start to show in the 1st 6 months? Joy, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, fear.
emotions, such as embarrassment, empathy, and envy, that depend on self-awareness self-conscious emotions.
realization that one's existence and functioning are separate from those of other people and things self-awareness.
emotions, such as pride, shame and guilt, that depend on both self awareness and knowledge of socially accepted standards of behavior. Self-evaluative emotions.
Self conscious emotions only arise after children have developed _. Self awareness.
When does the consciousness of self seemed to emerge? Between 15 and 24 months.
Self-awareness is necessary before children can be aware of what kinds of things? Being the focus of attention, identify with what other “selves” are feeling, wish they have what someone else has.
At what age do children become better able to evaluate their own thoughts and desires against what is considered socially appropriate? About age 3.
When are children able to demonstrate self-evaluative emotions? When they can consider what is socially appropriate.
When do emotions begin develop? Starting within the 1st 6 months.
When does consciousness start to develop? From 15 to 24 months.
When does acquisition and retention of standards and rules of society begin to develop? From 2 1/2 to 3 years.
When did the self-conscious emotions begin to develop? In the 2nd year.
What are the 2 kinds of embarrassment? Not self evaluative-being the object of attention, evaluated embarrassment-mild form of shame.
ability to put oneself in another person's place and feel what the other person feels empathy.
acting out of concern for a stranger with no expectation of reward altruistic.
The ability to _ seems to arise during the 2nd year and increases with age. “Put oneself in another person's place.”
True or false: emotional experiences can have long-lasting effects on the structure of the brain. True.
What is the first major shift of brain organization that roughly corresponds to changes in emotional processing? During first 3 months, differentiation of basic emotion begins as cerebral cortex becomes functional, bringing cognitive perceptions into play
What is the second major shift of brain organization that roughly corresponds to changes in emotional processing? Around 9 or 10 months, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, limbic system process sensory information-may facilitate relationship between cognitive and emotional spheres; as connections become denser; infant can experience and interpret emotions at same time
What is the third major shift of brain organization that roughly corresponds to changes in emotional processing? During the 2nd year, infant develops self-awareness, self-conscious emotions, able to better regulate emotions and activities; may be related to myelination of the frontal lobes
What is the fourth major shift of brain organization that roughly corresponds to changes in emotional processing? Around age 3, hormonal change in autonomic nervous system coincides with the emergence of the evaluative emotions.
part of the autonomic system that prepares the body for action sympathetic system.
the part of the autonomic system that is involved in excretion and sexual excitation parasympathetic system.
How do emotions develop? By the brain maturing, and an infant gaining self-awareness
How do babies show emotion? Crying, smiling, cooing, reaching out.
Explain a typical sequence of emergence of basic emotions. Crying, show interest/curiosity, smile, reach out
Explain a typical sequence of emergence of self-conscious emotions. Child develops self-awareness, recognize identity separate and different from rest of world, can wish they had something someone else has
Explain a typical sequence of evaluative emotions. Have developed self-awareness, gained knowledge about societies accepted standards and rules, figure out what is considered socially appropriate
Explain emotions connection with cognitive and neurological development. Parts of the brain mature and can act, allowing a child to experience and interpret emotions.
characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to situations temperament.
sometimes defined as a person's characteristic, biologically based way of approaching and reacting to people and situations temperament.
Temperament has been described as the _ of behavior: not _ people do, but _ they go about doing it. How, what, how.
Temperament may affect not only the way children approach and react to the world, but the way they regulate their _, _ and _ functioning. mental, emotional, behavioral.
_ is relatively consistent and enduring. Temperament.
Individual differences in temperament, which are thought to derive from a person's basic biological makeup, form the core of the _. Developing personality.
What are the 3 temperamental patterns of people? Easy, difficult, slow to warm up.
children with a generally happy temperament, regular biological rhythms, and the readiness to accept new experiences “easy” children.
children with an irritable temperament, irregular biological rhythms, and intense emotional responses “difficult” children.
children whose temperament is generally mild, but who are hesitant about accepting new experiences “slow to warm up” children.
Do all people fit into one of the 3 patterns of temperament? Are variations normal? No, yes.
Describe an “easy” child. Mood of moderate intensity, positive, responds well to change, regular sleep and feeding schedule, smile at strangers, adapts to new situations, except most frustrations with little fuss, adapts quickly to new routines.
Describe a “difficult” child. Intense, negative moods, cries often and loud, responds poorly to change, irregular eat/sleep schedule, accepts new food slowly, suspicious of strangers, adapts slowly to new situations, reacts to frustration with tantrums, adjust slowly to new routines
Describe a “slow to warm up” child. Mild intense reactions, both positive and negative, responds slowly to change, regular to irregular eat/sleep schedule, mildly negative initial response to new stimuli, gradually develops liking for new stimuli after repeated, unpressured exposures
Appropriateness of environmental demands and constraints on a child's temperament goodness of fit.
_ appears to be largely inborn, probably hereditary, and fairly stable. Temperament.
Does temperament persist? To some degree, but it is not fully formed at birth.
What can change a person's temperament? Various emotions, self regulatory capacities, parental treatment, other life experiences, cultural influence.
the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands and constraints the child must deal with goodness of fit.
Give an example of goodness of fit for each type of child. Active child expected to sit still, persistent child taken away from absorbing project, slow to warm up child pushed into new situations.
What are ways parents can feel less guilty, anxious, hostile, loss of control, rigid or inpatient about a child's reactions? Recognize child acts in a certain way because of inborn tendencies, it not out of willfulness, laziness, stupidity.
How can a parent help a temperamental child? Help child adapt.
What is another name for inhibition to the unfamiliar? Shyness.
how boldly or cautiously a child approaches unfamiliar objects and situations inhibition to the unfamiliar.
a part of the brain that detects and reacts to unfamiliar events and is involved in emotional responses amygdala
In the Kagan study, is a child was inhibited or uninhabited, how did that affect them in childhood? Seemed to maintain that pattern to some degree.
What might contribute to reactivity and inhibited or uninhabited behavior? Genes and psychological traits.
How can experience change the tendency of a child to be shy? Parents encourage children to venture into new situations, the children tend to be less inhibited.
What happened when mothers responded and sensitively to children, who behaved inhibited? Children tended to remain stable or increased.
What can reinforce or soften a child's original temperamental bias? Mother's sensitivity, birth order, race/ethnicity, culture, relationships with teachers and peers, unpredictable events.
What are the 3 patterns of temperament identified by the New York longitudinal study? Easy child, difficult child, slow to warm up child.
What evidence is there for the stability of temperament? Fairly stable, it can be modified, but can also revert back to old ways.
What is the importance of goodness of fit? The child's temperament and what is demanded of them must match to some degree or problems can arise.
What evidence is there of biological influences on shyness and boldness? reactivity and inhibited or uninhabited behavior.
How can temperament affect behavior? Temperament can affect how children respond to situations and behave in those situations
How do infants show temperamental differences? How responsive they are to trying new things, having a new routine, responsiveness to strangers, and reaction to situations
How enduring are temperamental differences? Seem to be lifelong, can start out at one extreme and become more neutral, but it can also revert back to old ways.
Is all adult and infant interaction in the world the same? No, it is different across all cultures.
Describe the monkey experiment by Harry Harlow and describe its results. Infant monkeys were placed with wire or terrycloth covered surrogate monkey mothers, monkeys even after a year separation preferred the terrycloth covered monkey mother even to their own mother.
What are the needs of an infant from its mother? Comfort of close bodily contact, mother who responds warmly and promptly.
When babies have responsive mothers, what did they show greater increases in? Social, emotional, communicative, cognitive competence.
What kind of involvement does a father need to have for a child's well-being in physical, cognitive and social development? Frequent and positive.
What roles do mothers play in early personality development? Nurturing, responsive, communicative
What roles do fathers play in early personality development? Increasingly important, as much or as little as they want.
significance of being male or female gender.
What does being male or female affect? How people look, how they move, how they work, how they play, what they think about themselves, what others think about them.
When does one of the earliest behavioral differences begin to appear between boys and girls? And what is it? Between ages 1 and 2, preference in toys, play activities, playmates of the same sex.
By using age-appropriate tasks, when have cognitive psychologists found that infants begin to perceive differences between males and females? Before behavior is gender differentiated, it maybe before they can talk.
At what age can infants begin to tell the difference between a male and female face? On what basis? 9 to 12 months, the basis of hair and clothing.
How can infants begin to associate gender typical toys with their gender? Dolls, match face with correct gender.
socialization process by which children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles gender-typing.
the process by which children learn behavior that their culture considers appropriate for each sex. Gender-typing.
Are mothers or fathers more guilty of promoting gender typing? Fathers.
Do mothers or fathers treat boys and girls more differently, even during their 1st year? Fathers.
What have cross-cultural variations suggested about rough play “in the male biology”? Rough play is not a function of male biology, but is instead culturally influenced.
Give examples of cultural differences in infant care. African fathers are very hands-on with children, Chinese fathers almost never hold infants. African fathers are very gentle with children, US fathers are rough with children.
Compare the roles of fathers and mothers in a meeting infants needs. Mothers are more nurturing and responsive, fathers tend to be more hands-off, or don't give as much care.
Discuss gender differences in infants and toddlers. Same at birth except for length and weight, start behaving differently around age 1 to 2 in preference for toys, playmates, activities
How do parents influence gender typing? Mothers-talk more and more supportive to daughters, fathers-play more roughly with the sons, show more sensitivity to daughters
When do gender differences appear? Around age 1 to 2
How do gender differences appear? Preference for toys, playmates, activities.
Erikson’s 1st stage and psychosocial development, in which infants develop a sense of the reliability of people and objects basic trust versus basic mistrust.
What do babies depend on others for? Food, protection, for lives.
let's people form intimate relationships trust.
enables people to protect themselves mistrust.
the belief that people can fill their needs and obtain their desires. Hope.
What happens if mistrust predominates in Erikson's theory? Child will view the world as unfriendly, unpredictable, have trouble forming relationships.
What happens if trust dominates in Erikson's theory? Children develop the virtue of hope.
What are the critical elements in developing trust? Sensitive, responsive, consistent caregiving.
What is the importance of basic trust? To develop a sense of reliability of people and objects.
Identify the critical element in trust. Hope-believe that someone can fill needs and obtain desires.
reciprocal, enduring tie between 2 people-especially between infant and caregiver-each of whom contributes to the quality of the relationship attachment.
laboratory technique used to study infant attachment strange situation.
According to what theory are infants and parents biologically predisposed to become attached to each other? What purpose does this serve? Ethnological theory, promotes baby’s survival.
Describe the strange situation test. takes less than half an hour, mother leaves baby with the stranger and comes back, mother leaves baby alone and comes back after stranger, monitoring babies response each time the mother returns.
What does the strange situation test monitor? Babies response each time the mother returns
What are the 4 main patterns of attachment? Secure attachment, avoidant attachment, ambivalent (resistant) attachment, disorganized-disoriented attachment
pattern in which an infant cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves and actively seeks out the caregiver on his or her return secure attachment.
pattern in which an infant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver and avoid contact on his or her return avoid attachment.
pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely upset during his or her absence, and both seeks and to resist contact on their return. Ambivalent (resistant), attachment.
Describe tendencies of a secure attachment child. Use mother a secure base, explore but return occasionally for reassurance, cooperative, relatively free of anger.
Describe tendencies an avoidant attachment child. Avoids mother on return, angry, do not reach out in time of need, dislike being held but dislike being put down even more.
Describe tendencies an ambivalent attachment child. Anxious before mother leaves, when mother returns seek out contact but resist by kicking or squirming, do little exploration, hard to comfort.
How are the 3 attachment patterns across all cultures? Universal.
pattern in which an infant, after separation from a primary caregiver, shows contradictory repetitious or misdirected behaviors on his or her return disorganized-disoriented attachment.
Babies with the does organized patterns seem to lack an _ to deal with the stress of the Strange Situation. Organize strategy.
What kind of behaviors do disorganized-disoriented attachment babies show? Contradictory, repetitive, misdirected, seeks closest to stranger instead of mother, greet mother then turn away, approach without looking at mother, seemed confused and afraid.
Why might a child have a disorganized-disoriented attachment? Premature, autism, down syndrome, mothers abuse alcohol or drugs.
How would a child with a secure attachment behave in the strange situation? Plays when mother is nearby, responds enthusiastically when mother returns.
How would a child with an avoidant attachment behave in a strange situation? When mother returns does not make eye contact or greet her, almost as if he has not noticed her return.
How would a child with an ambivalent attachment behave in a strange situation? Hovers close to mother, does not greet her in reunion, instead is angry and upset.
How would a child with a disorganized-disoriented attachment behave in a strange situation? Inconsistent, contradictory behavior, fall apart, overwhelmed by stress.
How is a baby’s attachment established according to Ainsworth and Bowlby? Baby build a working model of what can be expected, as long as mother acts the same, the model holds up, if behavior changes baby may revise the model, security of attachment may change.
What factors are important in a baby's attachment? Trust, mutual interaction, stimulation, positive attitude, warmth, acceptance, emotional support.
Do mothers tend to be the secure base across all cultures? Yes, but it may take somewhat varied forms.
In what ways does temperament influence attachment? irritability on an infant’s part may prevent the development of a secure attachment, neurological or psychological conditions, heart rate.
wariness of strange people and places, shown by some infants during the second half of the first year stranger anxiety.
distress shown by some people, typically an infant, when a familiar caregiver leaves separation anxiety.
What might stranger anxiety and separation anxiety reflect attachment to? The mother.
Is separation anxiety common? Among what age group? Yes, 6 to 12 month old babies.
Why can help ease separation anxiety? Gradually get used to stranger in a familiar setting, cuddling baby before they cried, stability of care.
As the attachment theory proposes, security of attachment seems to affect what? Emotional, social, cognitive competence.
Is a securely attached toddler or an insecurely attached toddler more likely to have a larger, more varied vocabulary? Why? Securely attach toddler, more positive interactions with peers, more joyful
What are some long-term effects of attachment in secure attachment children? more curious/empathetic/self-confident, get along better with other children, interact more positively with parents/teachers/peers, better able to resolve conflicts, better self-image, socially well-adjusted, quality of attachment in romantic partner
What does a secure attachment seem to prepare children for? Intimacy of friendship, quality of attachment in a romantic partner.
What are some long-term effects of attachment in insecure attachment children? Inhibitions, negative emotions, hostility, dependency.
What are some long-term effects of attachment in disorganized attachment children? Behavior problems at all levels of schooling, psychiatric disorders.
What may affect a parent’s emotional well-being and influenced the way they respond to their own children? The way adults recall early experiences with their parents.
What can a parent attachment history affect? Perceptions of their baby’s temperament, parent-child relationship.
Describe for patterns of attachment. Secure attachment, avoidant attachment, ambivalent attachment, disorganized-disoriented attachment.
Discuss how attachment established, including the role of the babies temperament. Baby has working model of mother and puts trust in to consistency of her behavior, role of temperament-irritability may prevent the development of a secure attachment.
Discuss factors affecting stranger anxiety and separation anxiety. Baby can get anxious of being separated from parents or being near someone new, but when stranger and separation are slowly introduced in familiar setting, infant may react more positively, and if stability of care is competent.
Describe intergenerational transmission of attachment. however the parent was treated, they will have the tendency to treat the child the same way.
How do infants and caregivers read each other's non-verbal signals? with mutual regulation, they can read each other's signals and respond appropriately
process by which infant and caregiver communicate emotional states to each other and respond appropriately mutual regulation
What do infants have a strong drive to do? interact with others
The ability of both infant and caregiver to respond appropriately and sensitively to each other's mental and emotional states is _. mutual regulation
What can infants do that influences the way caregivers behave towards them? send behavioral signals
When a caregiver reads a baby's signals accurately and responds appropriately, what occurs? healthy interaction
What does mutual regulation help babies to learn? to read others' behavior and to develop expectations about it
understanding an ambiguous situation by seeking another person's perception of it social referencing
seeking emotional information to guide behavior social referencing
Give an example of social referencing. baby receives new toy, looks at caregiver for guidance in behavior
one person forms an understanding of how to act in an unfamiliar situation by seeking another person's perception social referencing
How old might social referencing begin? 12 months
Social referencing and the information gained from it, may play a role in what developments in toddlerhood? rise of self conscious emotions (embarrassment, pride), development of sense of self, process of socialization and internalization
How does mutual regulation work? infant and caregiver communicate emotional states and respond to each
What is the importance of mutual regulation? when baby is cared for appropriately, it is happy, when baby is not cared for appropriately, may feel frustrated or sad
How do infants use social referencing? when given a new toy or in a new situation, they look to the parent to see how to respond
What percentage of mothers does postpartum depression affect? 14.5% of new mothers
When does postpartum depression occur? within 4 weeks of giving birth
What are some factors that can cause postpartum depression? drop in estrogen and progesterone following childbirth, significant emotional changes, significant lifestyle changes, first time mother
Can a mother's postpartum depression affect a baby? How? yes, cognitive and emotional development
How might a mother with postpartum depression treat a baby differently than a mother without? way she interacts with child, less sensitive, less positive, less likely to interpret and respond to infant's cries
How might a baby be affected by a mother with postpartum depression? give up sending emotional signals, learn they have to power to draw responses from people, mother unreliable, world untrustworthy, may become depressed,
What 3 things might put infants of depressed mothers at risk for getting depression? genetics, prenatal factors, environmental factors
What are some withdraw emotions? distress, disgust
True or false: a woman's depression during pregnancy can contribute to her newborn's neurological and behavioral functioning. true
What kind of attachment do infants with depressed mothers tend to have? insecure
What can happen long term to a child with a mother that has depression? grow poorly, perform poorly on cognitive and linguistic measures, behavior problems, trouble suppressing frustration and tension, at risk for violent behavior
What are some safe techniques for treating postpartum depression? Zoloft, nortriptyline, listen to music, visual imagery, aerobics, yoga, relaxation, massage therapy
How can treating a mother for postpartum depression help the mother-baby relationship? improve mother-baby interaction behavior, infant faster growth, fewer pediatric problems, more normal biochemical values, better developmental test scores
sense of self self concept
descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one's abilities and traits self concept
Our _ is our image of ourselves. self concept
infant's realization that they can control external events personal agency
When does the sense of self arise? age 4 to 10 months
sense of being a physical whole with boundaries separate from the rest of the world self-coherence
conscious knowledge of the self as a distinct, identifiable being self-awareness
When does self-awareness begin to develop? about 3 months
At what age do infants pay attention to their mirror images? When do they show more interest in others' images than themselves? 3 months, 4 to 9 months
When does conceptual self awareness develop? 15 to 18 months
How does the sense of self arise? self- coherence, self awareness, conceptual self awareness
At 20-24 months toddlers begin to use first-person pronouns showing what? A sign of self-awareness.
Erikson's 2nd stage and psychosocial development, in which children achieve a balance between self-determination and control by others autonomy versus shame and doubt.
When does Erikson’s 2nd stage of personality development, autonomy versus shame and doubt, occur? 18 months to 3 years.
What is the 2nd stage of Erikson's psychosocial development marked by? A shift from external control to self control.
What virtue emerges during the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage? Will.
What are important steps towards autonomy and self control? Toilet training, language.
Why do adults need to set limits for toddlers? What can help them realize those limits? Unlimited freedom is neither safe nor healthy, shame and doubt.
What is a normal sign of the drive for autonomy? “Terrible twos,” negativism.
the tendency to shout, saying no just for the sake of resisting authority negativism.
Caregivers who view children's expressions of self will as a normal, healthy striving for independence can help what? Self control, contribute to sense of competence, avoid excessive conflicts.
How can parents help toddlers in dealing with the terrible twos? Discourage negativism, encourage socially acceptable behavior.
What can parents do to deal with the terrible twos? be flexible, parent as safe harbor, child friendly home, no physical punishment, choices, consistency, avoid interrupting activities, give warnings, suggest not command, remind child expectations, time out to end conflict, positive atmosphere.
Which is harder for toddlers to comply with: do’s or don'ts? Harder to comply with do’s.
When will children have less self control? During times of stress-illness, divorce, birth of sibling, move.
development of habits, skills, values, and motives shared by responsible, productive members of a society socialization.
during socialization, process by which children accept societal standards of conduct as their own internalization.
Why can be seen as a 1st step towards compliance with societal standards of behavior? Compliance with parental expectations.
How do children behave when they have made society standards their own? No longer obey rules or commands merely to get rewards or avoid punishment.
a child's independent control of behavior to conform to understood social expectations self-regulation.
control of infants behavior to conform to a caregivers demands or expectations, even when the caregiver is not present self-regulation.
Give an example of self-regulation. Child starts to put finger and socket, father shouts no, next time child starts to put finger and socket, remembers parents said no, doesn't do it.
Trace the early development of the self concept. Began to realize you are an individual, self coherence, self-awareness, conceptual self-awareness.
self-government or personal freedom autonomy
Describe the conflict of autonomy versus shame and doubt. A child wants to govern themselves and be in control, but society has standards
Explain why the terrible twos are considered a normal phenomenon. healthy striving for independence, not stubbornness.
What is the foundation of socialization? Self-regulation.
What domains of development does self-regulation linked to? All domains-physical, cognitive, emotional, social.
Restraining oneself requires what 2 things? Cognitive awareness, emotional control.
What gives children a strong desire to please their parents? Want to do what their parents approve of, children process/store/act on information.
enables children to develop will power and cope with frustration attention regulation.
The growth of self-regulation parallels the development of what emotions? Self conscious and evaluate of emotions, such as empathy, shame, guilt.
What is self-regulation correlated with? Resisting temptation, make amends.
Are the terrible twos a universal trait of 2-year-olds in the world? No.
What explains the cultural contrast of the terrible twos stage? What age children can be held responsible for their actions.
internal standards of behavior, which usually control one's conduct in produce emotional discomfort when violated. Conscience.
Konchanska’s term for wholehearted obedience of a parent orders without reminders or lapses committed compliance.
Konchanska’s term for obedience of a parent orders only in the presence of signs of ongoing parental control situational compliance.
Konchanska’s term for eager willingness to cooperate harmoniously with a parent in daily interactions, including routines, chores, hygiene and play receptive cooperation.
_ includes both emotional discomfort about doing something wrong and the ability to refrain from doing it conscience.
What do children need to have before they can develop a conscience? Internalize moral standards.
What does conscience dependent upon? Willingness to do the right thing, because child believes it is right, not just because someone else said so.
Mothers of committed compliers, as contrasted with mothers of situational compliers, tend to rely on what? Gentle guidance rather than force, threats, other forms of negative control.
What cooperation goes beyond committed compliance, a child's eager willingness to cooperate harmoniously with a parent not only in disciplinary situations, but in a variety of daily interactions. Receptive cooperation
How does attachment affect cooperation? Insecurely attached-prone to anger, unreceptive parenting, low in receptive cooperation; securely attached-responses mother's, high in receptive cooperation.
What are factors in the success of socialization? How parents try to socialize, child's temperament, quality of parent-child relationship, security is attachment, observational learning, mutual responsiveness of parent and child, socioeconomic factors, cultural factors.
Secure attachment and a warm, mutually responsive, parent-child relationship seem to foster what? Committed compliance and conscious development.
What are the 2 types of compliance? And what does it affect? Committed compliance, situational compliance, receptive cooperation.
emotions such as guilt and empathy moral emotions.
conduct in the face of strong temptation to break rules or violate standards of behavior moral conduct.
judged by child's response to hypothetical, age-appropriate moral dilemmas moral cognition.
Children who were judged to have mutually responsive relationships with their mothers tended to show what 3 moral things? Moral emotions, moral conduct, moral cognition.
Disagreements that involves negotiation, reasoning, resolution constructive conflict.
How can having constructive conflicts help a child develop moral understanding? Enabling them to see another point of view.
Who achieved better results in teaching children to resist temptation: mothers who requested, compromised and bargained or mothers who threatened, teased, insisted or gave in? mothers who requested, compromised or bargained.
What can help foster the development of moral emotions? discussion of emotions in conflict situations, let to conscious development
Tell when and how self-regulation develops. between age two and three years old, when parent says no, child later remembers not to do it because parent said no earlier
How does self-regulation contribute to socialization? if a child can regulate themselves, they can do what is socially appropriate and get along with people better through self restraint
Distinguish between committed compliance, situational compliance and receptive cooperation. committed-obey parent’s orders without lapses, situational-obey parent’s orders when being watched, receptive cooperation-cooperate with parent in daily activities
How does temperament affect socialization? if a child has a bad temperament, they will have trouble making friends
How does attachment affect socialization? a more securely attached child will make friends easier than an insecurely attached child
How does parenting practice affect socialization? infant of a warm, mutually responsive parent showed moral emotions and conduct sooner
How do toddlers exercise autonomy and develop standards for socially acceptable behavior? try to start doing things on their own, observe standards and self-regulation and watch how others behave
How do infants gain trust in their world and form attachments? gain trust from being able to rely on mother, for attachments through trust
Who influences children’s lives? parents, other children in and out of home
_ can become a vehicle for understanding social relationships. sibling conflicts
_ can play a distinct role is socialization. sibling relationships
Can a baby’s attachment to a parent affect their relationship with siblings? yes
When does sibling conflict dramatically increase? Why? Younger child reaches 18 months, younger child begins to more around and becomes more assertive
How can constructive conflicts with a sibling help children? helps children recognize each other’s needs, wishes, point of view, helps them learn how to fight, disagree, compromise
Describe sociability from birth to 3 years old. first few month-look, smile, coo at other babies; 6-12 months-smile, babble at, touch other babies; 1 year-learn to walk, pay less attention to others; 1 ½ to 3 years-interest in other children, learn how to deal with others
How do toddlers learn from others? imitating one another, games like follow the leader, more verbal communication, helps peers coordinate joint activities
How does cooperative activity develop during the second and third years? social understanding grows
What benefits can disagreements with other children have? children learn how to negotiate and solve disputes
What makes some children more sociable than others? temperament, readiness to accept new people, ability to adapt to change, experience
Explain how sibling relationships can play a part in socialization. can help children learn how to deal with conflict, recognize other people’s points of view
Describe changes in sibling interactions during childhood. older child helps when younger child is little, when younger child reaches 18 months rivalry starts
Trace changes in sociability during the first three years. look at and smile at other babies, touch and babble at other babies, learn to walk and pay less attention to others, show growing interest in others
What two influences affect sociability in the first three years? imitation, cooperative activity
What percent of women with children under 3 years old work? 57.5%.
What can less than but not eliminate the negative effects of a mother working more than 30 hours per week? High quality home environment, high-quality child care, maternal sensitivity.
What is a factor in the impact of the mothers working outside the home? Type of substitute care a child receives.
What factors may impact the quality of child care? Type, amount, quality, stability of care, family's income, age at which children start receiving non-maternal care.
What makes a child sensitive to child care? Temperament, gender, stress, sociability, security attachment.
quality of care, which can be measured by staff training and the ratio of children to caregivers structural characteristics.
warmth, sensitivity, responsiveness of caregivers and the developmental appropriateness of back to these process characteristics.
What factors are associated with a higher process quality daycare? What outcome did this produce? Well-trained caregivers, low child staff ratios, better cognitive and social outcomes.
What are the most important elements in quality of care? Caregiver, stimulating interactions with responsive adults, low staff turnover, stability of care.
Why is low staff turnover and important in a daycare facility? Infants need consistent caregiving in order to develop trust and secure attachments.
What are some key factors in choosing a good child care facility? Licensed facility, meet state standards, clean and safe, adequate space, adult to child ratio, involved staff, staff trained in development, staff receptive and responsive, promote good health, structured activities and free play, educational toys.
What 4 things can influence specific aspects of development? Amount of care, quality of care, type of care, stability of care.
What have long days in child care been associated with? Stress, being seen by adults as aggressive, disobedient, hard to get along with.
When a child is in the proper kind of child care center, how did they score on tests? Scored higher on tests of language comprehension, cognition, readiness for school, better vocabulary scores, fewer behavioral problems.
Which is more influential, child care or family characteristics? Family characteristics.
What family characteristics are influential on children? Income, home environment, amount of mental stimulation the mother provides, mother sensitivity to her child.
How did child care of fact attachment? No effect no matter what age the child started child care.
What effect does child care have on interaction with peers? Child becomes more responsive and competent and play with other children.
How can the amount of child care be counteracted? Counteracted by activities that enhance child attachment to caregivers and peers, emphasize child initiating learning, internalized motivation, focus on group social development.
Evaluate the impact of the mothers employment on infants well-being. As long as the child care is high quality and the mother is sensitive, there seems to be no major impact, poor child care quality and long amounts of time spent in child care can have a negative impact.
List 5 criteria for good child care. Trained staff, sensitive staff, low staff-child ratio, promotes good health habits, clean and safe facility.
How does parental employment affect infants and toddlers development? As long as the infants had a stimulating home environment and sensitive mother they seemed to do okay.
How does early childcare affect infants and toddlers development? As long as the child care is high quality and the mother is sensitive, there seems to be no major impact, poor child care quality and long amounts of time spent in child care can have a negative impact.
action taken deliberately to endanger another person, involving potential bodily injury physical abuse.
failure to meet a dependant’s basic needs neglect
physically or psychologically harmful sexual activity or any sexual activity involving a child and an older person sexual abuse.
rejection, terrorism, isolation, exploitation, and the degradation, ridicule or a failure to provide emotional support, love and affection emotional maltreatment.
action or inaction that may cause behavioral, cognitive, emotional or mental disorders emotional maltreatment.
deliberate or unavoidable endangerment of a child maltreatment.
What are the 4 types of maltreatment? Physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment.
What are examples of physical abuse? Enter to the body, punching, beating, kicking, shaking, burning.
What is an example of neglect? Not providing child with food, clothing, medical care, protection, supervision.
an apparently healthy, well fed babies failure to grow often as a result of emotional neglect failure to thrive.
form of maltreatment in which shaking an infant or toddler can cause brain damage, paralysis or death shaken baby syndrome.
Between 1990 and 2004 did the amount of child abuse and neglect increase or decrease? Decrease.
What percentage of children identified as maltreated are neglected? 60%.
What percentage of children identified as maltreated are physically abused? 18%
What percentage of children identified as maltreated are sexually abused? 10%
What percentage of children identified as maltreated are emotionally maltreated? 7%.
What amount of child fatalities are attributed to neglect? More than one third.
What factors can cause failure to thrive? inadequate nutrition, disturbed interaction with parents, disease, difficulties and breast-feeding, improper formula preparation, improper feeding technique, poverty.
_ is a form of maltreatment found mainly in children under 2 years, most often in infants. Shaken baby syndrome.
Why my a caregiver shake a baby? Frustrated, angered by infants crying, unable to handle stress, has unrealistic expectations for infant behavior, may lose control.
What damage is caused when a baby is shaken? Fragile brain bounces back and forth inside's call, causes bruising, bleeding, swelling, permanent and severe brain damage, paralysis, death.
_ is the leading cause of death in child abuse cases in the US. Head trauma.
What percentage of shaken babies died? What damage can survivors of shaken baby syndrome be left with? 20%, disabilities, learning and behavioral disorders, neurological injuries, retardation, paralysis, blindness, permanent vegetative state.
In the_ out of 10 cases of maltreatment the perpetrators are the child's parents, usually the _. 8, mother.
What can maltreatment by parents be a symptom of? Extreme disturbance in child rearing, aggravated by family problems, poverty, lack of education, alcoholism, depression, antisocial behavior, large, poor, single-parent families.
Where do most neglected cases occur? Very poor families.
What are characteristics of an abusive household? Parent who is anxious, depressed, hostile tries to take control of child physically but loses self-control and ends up shaking or beating child, having marital problems, right physically, disorganized household, stressful events.
_ is a factor in at least 1/3 of cases of abuse and neglect. Substance abuse.
Sexual abuse often occurs along with other family disturbances such as what? Physical abuse, emotional maltreatment, substance abuse, family violence.
What kind of community can make abuse more likely to happen? High abuse community, criminal activity, dreary facilities.
Even when poorer, what kind of community can make abuse less likely to happen? Robust social support networks, well known community services, strong political leadership.
What are 2 cultural factors associated with child abuse? Societal violence, physical punishment of child.
Who should be told about possible maltreatment? State and local child protective services agencies.
What kinds of services are available for children and parents who have been abused? Shelters, education and parenting skills, therapy, foster care.
In 2004, about what percent of victims of maltreatment were placed in foster homes? 19%.
What are the risks of foster care? Removes child from immediate danger, but is often unstable, further alienates the child from the family, may turn out to be another abusive situation.
Children who have been in foster care are more likely than other children to do what? Become homeless, commit crimes, become teenage mothers.
Neglected children are more likely than either abused or maltreated children to _. Misread emotional signals on bases.
What are some long-term consequences of maltreatment? Poor physical, mental, emotional health; impaired brain development; cognitive, language, academic difficulties; problems in the attachment and social relationships; memory problems.
What are some long-term consequences of maltreatment in adolescents? Heightened risk of poor academic achievement, delinquency, teenage pregnancy, alcohol and drug use, suicide.
About _ of adults who were abused and neglected in childhood victimize their own children. 1/3.
How did abuse affect a child's mood? More disturbed behavior, lower self-esteem, depressed, anxious, unhappy.
What are some long-term consequences of maltreatment and adults? Anxious, depressed, angry, hostile, mistrust, isolated, more likely to abuse alcohol or drugs.
Why might some abuse children have problems as an adult and others do not? Genetic, some genotypes may be more resistant to trauma.
What kind of resilience do many maltreated children show? Optimism, self-esteem, intelligence, creativity, humor, independence.
What are the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect? Abusive or neglectful parent, childhood and possibly adult trauma
What can be done about child abuse and neglect? Children can be placed in foster care, parents can be shown a proper way to treat children.
When and how do emotions develop? From birth, simpler emotions develop into complex emotions
How do babies show emotions? Crying, laughing, smiling
How do complex emotions develop? From earlier, simpler emotions.
True or false: emotional development is orderly. True.
What are early signs of emotion, both behaviorally and physically? Crying, smiling, laughing, facial expressions, motor activity, body language, physiological changes.
Brain development is closely linked with _ development. Emotional.
Self-conscious and self evaluate of emotions arise after the development of _. Self-awareness.
How do infants showed temperamental differences? They can be easy, difficult, slow to warm up
How enduring are temperamental differences? Pretty stable, but can be modified by experience
What 3 categories of temperament can a child fall into? Easy, difficult, slow to warm up.
_ appear to be largely inborn and have a biological basis. Temperamental patterns.
Are temperamental patterns stable? How can they be modified? Yes, by experience.
What can aid a child's adjustment and goodness of fit? Child's temperament, environmental demands.
True or false: cross-cultural differences in temperament may reflect child raising practices. True.
What roles do mothers and fathers play in early personality development? How a child will behave, become attached
What roles can vary around the world? Child raising practices, caregiving roles.
What do infants have strong needs out? Maternal closeness, warmth, responsiveness, physical care.
Fatherhood is a _. Social construction.
True or false: fathering roles differ in various cultures. True.
How and when do gendered differences appear? Appear after infancy, promoted through early gender-typing, especially by fathers.
How do infants gain trust in their world and form attachments? Gain trust through relying on their mother, form attachments by the way they are treated
How do infants and caregivers read each other's nonverbal signals? Mutual regulation
According to Erikson, what is the 1st stage of personality development, and at what age does it occur? Basic trust versus basic mistrust, birth to 18 months.
What is the key to successful revolution of the basic trust versus basic mistrust conflict? Sensitive, responsive, consistent caregiving.
According to the strange situation, what are the 4 patterns of attachment? Secure, avoidance, ambivalent (resistant), disorganized-disoriented.
_ measure attachment in natural settings and in cross-cultural research. Newer instruments.
What might attachment patterns depend on? Babies temperament, quality of parenting
Can attachment patterns have long-term implications for development? How? Yes, parents memory may influence their child's attachment
When may stranger anxiety and separation anxiety began to arise? What can they be relayed it to? Around age 1 1/2, related to temperament and circumstances.
_ enables babies to play an active part in regulating their emotional states. Mutual regulation.
At what age have social referencing been observed? 12 months.
Can a mother's depression have serious consequences on her infant’s development? Yes, especially if severe or chronic.
When and how does the sense of self arise? Between 4 and 10 months, infants begin to perceive a difference between self and others, experience a sense of agency and self coherence
How do toddlers exercise autonomy? Self-regulation, children began to take it over self control
How do toddlers develop standards for socially acceptable behavior? Watching what other people do
When and how does self concept begin to develop? Between 15 and 24 months, with a emergence of self-awareness and self recognition.
What is Erikson’s 2nd stage of personality development? Autonomy versus shame and doubt.
In the US culture, _ is a normal manifestation of the shift from external control to self control. Negativism.
When does socialization begin? With self-regulation.
_ rests on internalization of societally approved standards. Socialization.
A _ is committed to compliance to caregivers demands. Precursor of conscience.
Toddlers who show _ compliance tend to internalize adult roles more readily than those who show _ compliance. Committed, situational.
Children whose show _ can be active partners in their socialization. Receptive cooperation.
_ play a distinct role in socialization. Sibling relationships.
True or false: what children learn from let relations with sibling carries over to relationships outside the home. True.
Between the ages of one and a half to 3 years old, what do children tend to show more interest in? More interest in other children, increasing understanding of how to deal with others.
How does early childcare affect infants and toddlers development? Okay as long as the child care is high-quality
How does parental employment affect infants and toddlers development? Little impact on development, but cognitive development may suffer when a mother works 30 or more hours a week.
What is the most important element in quality of care in a child care center? Caregiver.
True or false: substitute child care can vary in quality. True.
With child care, why can influence psychosocial and cognitive development? Quality, quantity, stability, type of care.
Does child care or family characteristics greater influence in infants and toddlers development? Family characteristics.
What are the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect? .
What can be done about child abuse and neglect? .
What are 4 forms of maltreatment? Physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment.
What age group are most victims of maltreatment? Infants and toddlers.
What environmental factors contribute to child abuse and neglect? Characteristics of abuser or neglect her, family, community, culture
What can maltreatment interfere with mentally? Physical, cognitive, emotional, social development.
Can emotional effects of maltreatment continue into adulthood? Yes.
How can maltreatment be prevented or stopped? Multifaceted, coordinated community efforts
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