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Cells

Study Stack #3

QuestionAnswer
How are organisms organized from the smallest to the largest? cell, tissue, organs, organ systems, organisms
Define cells membrane covered structures that contain all the materials needed for life
Explain Hooke and Leeuwenhoek's contributions to cell study. Robert Hooke saw the first cells in cork and Anton Van Leewenhoek first observed living cells in pond water
Explain all 3 parts of cell theory -All organisms are composed of one or more cells -cell is the basic unit of life in all living things -all cells come from other cells
Explain how the size of the cell limits how big a cell can grow. Be sure to include volume and surface area in your answer. Cells are small so the surface is large enough to bring in enough nutrients or get rid of enough waste to keep the cell alive. Another reason is that Inside grows faster than the outside.(inside is volume, outside is surface area)
What is the difference between prokaryote and eukaryote. Prokaryote:no nucleus to contain DNA;it floats around Eukaryote:has nucleus to contain DNA
explain cell membrane allows nutrients and waste to move into and out of the cell. It is made of phospholipids that so not like liquid so it is semipermeable. (All cells have a cell membrane)
explain cytoplasm jellylike material that surrounds organelles
explain ribosomes. What do they make? smallest, most abundant organelle where amino acids hook together to make proteins
Explain endoplasmic reticulum. Sacks and tunnels of membranes that carry substances to outside of cell.
Explain golgi bodies -flattened stacked membranes changes lipids and proteins from ER, pinches them off into sacks (vesicles) and ships them out of the cell it also helps to create lysosomes
explain nucleus and nucleolus nucleus:largest organelle, stores DNA which contains all the information to tell the organelles and the cell what to do nucleolus:in nucleus, stores material used to make ribosomes
What is DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; contains all information to tell the organelles and the cell what to do
What is the relationship between golgi bodies and vesicles? Golgi bodies changes lipids and proteins from rough ER, pinches them off into sacks (vesicles) and ships them out of the cell
What are vacuoles? Vacuoles are sacks that contain water,waste material, and food. They make up most of the cells volume.
Explain lysosomes lysosomes contain digestive enzymes. They break down old cells and bacteria. *White blood cells have a lot of lysosomes because they kill bacteria*
Explain chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll and they absorb sunlight where photosynthesis occurs and glucose (sugar) is made.
Explain the importance of mitochondria. What happens in the mitochondria?What is cristae and why is it important? .... include surface area in your answer Mitochondria is important because glucose is broken down which releases energy. Cristae is inner folds that increase the surface area so more glucose can be broken down and more energy (ATP) released
What are the two basic shapes of cells? Which are animal and which are plant? Animal cells-round plant cells-square
What type of cell contains cell walls and why are cell wall important? Plant cells contain cell walls. They are important because they help maintain the shape of the cell.
define hypothesis A possible explanation or answer to a question; uses the word affect
define prediction an IF-THEN statement
define experimental and control group experimental: one variable is changed control:variable is not changed:used for comparison
define independent and dependent variable independent:what is changed in the experiment:IF dependent:what changes due to the independent variable: THEN
*give scenario* identify all terms
define and explain stimulus stimulus is a change in an organism's environment that affects its activity EX: food, touch, darkness, light, temperature, noise, smell, and taste
define and explain response an answer, reaction, or reply to the something that affects how it will funtion
define and explain homeostasis homeostasis is to maintain a stable internal environment
Linnaeus's classification system in order is: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What two parts of Linnaeus's classification system are used in binomial nomenclature and why?(think about the last part logically) genus, species because genus and species are the most similar.
What is the relationship between chloroplasts and mitochondria? Chloroplasts are where the glucose is made and mitochondria is where the energy is released from the glucose being broken down.
Do big and small organisms have the same size cells? yes
What jobs does endoplasmic reticulum do? rough is covered with ribosomes and transports proteins smooth is not covered with ribosomes and it transports proteins and lipids but it also breaks down chemicals that harm the cell
Created by: 23efritz
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