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Fundamentals Ch.16

Infection Prevention and Control: Protective Mechanisms and Asepsis

antibiotic chemical substance that can kill or alter the growth of microorganisms
antimicrobial a substance capable of killing or suppressing growth of microorganisms
aseptic free of microorganisms
bacteria single-celled microorganisms LACKING A NUCLEUS, which reproduce abt every 20 min.
contaminated made unclean
debris dead tissue or foreign matter
disinfectants an agent that destroys infection-producing organisms
fungi tiny, primitive organisms of the plant kingdom containing no chlorophyll that reproduce by means of spores, present in soil, air & water
helminths parasitic worms or flutes that belong to the animal kingdom
immune response reaction of the body to substances interpreted as non-self
interferon biologic response modifier that affects cellular growth
medical asepsis practice of reducing the number of organisms present or reducing the risk for transmission of organisms
microorganism organism only visible with a microscope
pathogens disease producing organism
asepsis free from pathogenic microorganisms
prions proteinaceous particles believed to be responsible for transmissable neurodegenerative diseases
personal protective equipment (PPE) gloves, gowns, masks, protective eyewear, & hair covering used to protect the nurse from infectious disease
protozoa one-celled microorganism belonging to the animal kingdom
rickettsia amsll, rod shaped to round microorganisms found in tissue cells of lice, fleas, ticks, mites & transmitted to humans by their bites
standard precautions precautions that protect both the patient & the nurse from infection & are used for every patient contact
sterile without pathogenic organisms
sterilization process of destroying all microorganisms
surgical asepsis preparing & handling materials in a way that prevents the patient's exposure to living microorganisms
viruses extremely smaqll particles of nucleic acid that can trigger an immune reaction or damage cells in other ways
virulence degree to which a microorganism can cause infection or invade the host
vector carrier that transports an infective agen from 1 host to another
List 3 examples of vectors animals, insects, rodents
toxin poisonous protein produced by certain bacteria
spores oval bodies formed within bacteria as a resting stage during the life cycle of the cell
Spores are characterized by resistance to environmental change (heat, humidity, cold)
Phagocytosis engulfing of microorganisms & foreign particles by phagocytes
phagocytes cells capable of ingesting particulate matter
an example of a phagocyte macrophages
leukocytosis increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood
infection invasody tissue that cause cellular injuryion & multiplication of microorganisms in b
host animal/plant that harbors & provides sustanence for a parasite
hospital-associated infection acquired during hospitalization
nosocomial infection hospital associated infection
gram-positive bacteria that retain the stain in Gram's method of staining
gram-negative bacteria that lose the stain in Gram's method of staining
exudate fluid in/on tissue surfaces that has escaped from blood vessels in response to inflammation that contains protein & cellular debris
endotoxin heat-stable toxin associated with the outer membranes of certain gram-negative bacteria that is released when the cells are disrupted
cross-contamination transmission of infectious microorganisms from 1 person/object to another
colonization microorganisms take up residence & grow
fomite inanimate object
Always wear Gloves
before and after putting on gloves wash hands
always change gloves between patients
viruses can only grow or replicate in a living cell
gram-negative may produce endotoxins
bacteria is classified aerobic, anerobic, gram staining
protozoa causes diarrhea
infection chain links causative agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transfer, portal of entry, susceptible host
way to break the reservoir link prevent transfer of microorganisms
way to break the portal of exit link prevent contamination
ways to break the mode of transfer link prevent contaminiation, eliminate vectors
ways to break the entrance link put only clean things in mouth, protect skin, protect mucous membranes
way to break the host link protect natural body defenses
factrs that protect natural body defenses good nutrition, good hygeine, adequate sleep, decreased stress
person most important to breaking the chain nurse
discharged patient must be taught proper hygeine, medical asepsis, proper handling of contaminated objects
example of reservoir link infected patient
examples of portal of exit link secretions, feces, blood, urine, sputum
examples of modes of transfer link hands, contaminated food, contaminated supplies and other objects
examples of entrance link mouth, break in skin, mucous membranes
example of host link susceptible person
portal of entry for tuberculosis respiratory tract
portal of entry for HIV blood
factors that increase elderly's risk for infection poor nutrition, respiratory function, urine stasis, poor hygeine, thinner skin,
medical asepsis AKA clean technique
surgical asepsis AKA sterile technique
body's first line of defense skin
body's second line of defense fever, leukocytosis, phagocytosis, inflammation, action of interferon
leukocytosis body's response to infection
signs and symptoms of inflammation pain, redness, swelling, edema, heat, warmth
surgical asepsis prevents spread of infection to patient
medical asepsis prevents spread of infection to everyone else
patient has infection medical asepsis, patient
patient is potential host surgical asepsis, patient
reservoir of infection is patient medical asepsis, reservoir of infection
reservoir of infection is other people and the environment` surgical asepsis, reservoir of infection
objective of barriers to confine organisms medical asepsis, objective of barriers
objective of barriers to prevent organism from reaching patient surgical asepsis, objective of barriers
disinfect, sterilize, or dispose of equipment and supplies after contact medical asepsis, equipment and supplies
disinfect or sterilize equipment and supplies before contact surgical asepsis, equipment and supplies
nurse's protective gear protects worker medical asepsis, protective gear
nurse's protective gear protects patient surgical asepsis, protective gear
goal of nursing action is to confine and prevent spread to others medical asepsis, goal of nursing action
goal of nursing action is to keep area or object free of all microorganisms surgical asepsis, goal of nursing action
third line of defense immune response
types of immune responses Passive Acquired Immunity, Naturally Acquired Immunity, Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity, Artificially Acquired Immunity, Passive Artificially Acquired Immunity
Example of Passive Acquired Immunity tetanus shot, short term
Example of Naturally Acquired Immunity person gets chickenpox, long term
Example of Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity mom passes immunity to baby through breastfeeding, short term
Example of Artificially Acquired Immunity immunizations
Example of Passive Artificially Acquired Immunity IGG, short term
technique for removing mask untie bottom, then top, throw away without touching mask
best method of sterilization steam or moist heat
sterilization in the home boil in water for 20 minutes, drain and air dry
to aseptically clean instruments in the home wash instruments with hot water and detergent, then soak in bleach solution
prion pathogen that does not cause immune response
normal flora nonpathogenic organism on and in host
length of time hands should be washed before beginning shift 15 seconds
nail tip length 1/4 inch
sharps disposable sharp instruments
Creutzfield-Jakob disease AKA mad cow disease
disease caused by prions Creutzfield-Jakob disease
characteristics that effect virulence of microorganism ability to adhere to mucosal surfaces or skin, penetrate mucous membranes, multiply once in the body, secrete harmful enzymes or toxins, resist phagocytosis
autoclaving steam under pressure at 250 degrees
action of interferon biologic response modifier that affects cellular growth
purpose of inflammatory reponse neutralize and destroy, limit spread to other tissues, prepare damaged cells for repair
factors that increase risk for infection malnutrition, chronic illness, immunosuppressive treatment, age, excessive stress, alcoholism, indwelling tubes or equipment, low white blood count, altered defense mechanisms
consequence of malnutrition interferes with cell growth and replacement
consequence of chronic illness taxes immune system
consequence of immunosuppressive treatment depresses immune system
examples of chronic illness HIV and diabetes
examples of immunosuppressive treatment chemo and corticosteroid
corticosteroid depresses the inflammatory response
chemo depresses the immune system
Created by: drtediaper