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MS II Cardiac Unit

Medical Surgical Nursing II - Cardiovascular Unit Review

Controllable risk factors for heart disease include Smoking, Lack of Exercise, HTN, DM, Syndrome X, Stress, ALcohol
Uncontrollable risk factors for heart disease include Age, gender, family hisotry, race
Cholesterol levels should be below 200
Limit sodium intake to 2300-2400 or 1.25 tsp a day
Refined sugar should be limited to less than 10% of total caloric intake
Solubale fiber needs 15-45 grams
S & S of Cardiac Patients Edmea, chest pain, palpatations, dyspnea, fatigue, orthopnea,
Assessment of Cardiac Patients pain, pulse, apical pulse, LOC, skin color temp and moisture, cap refill, breath sounds, edema, pulmonary congestion
Ejection Fraction is percentage of blood ejected from left ventricle during contraction
Normal Ejection Fraction 50-75%
CK Lab is also called Creatnine Kinase
CK Lab detects muscle cell damage, elevates in 6 hours and returns to baseline in 48-72 hours
CK-MB Lab more specific lab test - cardiac specific ISO enzyme, elevates in 6 hours and returns to baseline in 72 hours
Troponin lab great test for early detection MI's
Troponin Lab rises in 3 hours, sensitive indicator for MI
Best lab for silent MI Troponin
Normal Cardiac Outpul 4-8 LPM
amount of blood being pumped out by venticles per mine Cardiac Output
Amount of blood in the ventricles before they contract Preload
Measures prelaod Central Venous Pressure
Normal central venous pressure 2-6 mmG
Amount of force the ventricles must overcome to eject blood into the aorta thru the aortic valve Afterload
force of the contraction Contractility
inability of the heart to meet the body's demand for cardiac output Heart Failure
build up of placque in the arteries Atherosclerosis
Build up of fluid that leaks into the lungs Pulmonary Edema
Decreased cardiac output affects the kidneys
R SIde Heart Failure caused by COPD is called Cor Pulmonale
Primary Symptom of R Side Heart Failure Edema and JVD
Most important factor to consider with cardiac patients they need rest to decrease cardiac workload and demand for oxygen
Blocks angiotension II to decrease aldosterone production Ace Inhibitors
Causes vasodilation with Decreased BP and decreased work of the heart Ace Inhibitors
Lisonopril, Enalapril, Captopril Ace Inhibitors
Rids the body of excess water and sodium Diuretics
Side effect of Diruetics Hypokalemia
Decreased workload of the heart by decreasing fluid volume Diuretics
Furosemid Diuretic
Increases force of myocardial contractions to Increase CO Inotropic Agent
Helps the heart beat stronger Inotropics
Drug class that deals with contractility Inotropic Agents
Digoxin is what kind of drug Inotrop
S&S of DIG toxicity Anorexia, N/V Halos, arrythmias, bradycardic
Drug that increases CO and HR because its an Inotrop and Chronotrop Dobutamine or Dobutrex
Synthetic Beta Natruetic Peptide that stimulates diuresis and vasodilation Nesirtide or Natrecor
Pacemaker of the heart SA node
Sa node is located where Right atrium
Regular HR, Normal Rhythm, Over 100 Sinus Tachy
Regular HR, Normal Rhthym, Less than 60 Sinus Brady
Causes of Bradycardia vagus stimulation, dig toxicity, anesthesia, hypothyroidism
Causes of Tachycardia exercise, emotion, pain, HTN, anemia, electrolyte disturbances drugs
Extopy is irregular beat caused by impulse firing before the normal sequence from SA node
Most common substained arrythmia Atril fib
3rd degree heart block requries pacemaker
All impulses blocked at AV node is called 3rd Degree heart block
deposit of fatty material on artery lining Placque
constriction or narrowing of a passage stenosis
countershock to the heart thry electrodes placed on the chest to start fib of the heart Defibrillation
Breads and grains needed 6 servings per day
Fruits needed 2 servings per day
Vegetables needed 3 servings per day
Meats needed no more than 6oz per day
Milk needed at least 2 servings per day
ST depression Ischemia or injury
ST elevation Infarction
Created by: digitaldane