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Psych Vocabulary


psychology the scientific study of the mind, brain and behavior
levels of analysis rungs on a ladder of analysis, with lower levels tied most closely to biological influences and higher levels tied most closely to social influences
multiply demand caused by many factors
anorexia nervosa psychiatric condition marked by extreme weight loss and the perception that one is overweight even when one is massively underweight
individual differences variations among people in their thinking, emotion, personality and behavior
naive reason belief that we see the world precisely as it is
scientific theory explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world
hypothesis testable prediction derived from a scientific theory
confirmation bias tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and deny, dismiss or distort evidence that contradicts them
belief perseverance tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them
metaphysical claim assertion about the world that's not testable
pseudoscience set of claims that seems scientific but isn't
ad hoc immunizing hypothesis escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory use to protect their theory from falsification
patternicity the tendency to perceive meaningful patterns in their absence
terror management theory theory proposing that our awareness of our death leaves us with an underlying sense of terror with which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural worldviews
scientific skepticism approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them
critical thinking set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open-minded and careful fashion
correlation-causation fallacy error of assuming that because one thing is associated with another, it must cause the other
variable anything that can vary
falsifiable capable of being disproved
replicability when a study's findings are able to be duplicated, ideally by independent investigators
decline effect fact that the size of certain psychological findings appears to be shrinking over time
introspection method by which trained observers carefully reflect and report on their mental experiences
functionalism school of psychology that aimed to understand the adaptive purposes of psychological characteristics
natural selection principle that organisms that possess adaptations survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other organisms
cognitive psychology school of psychology that proposes that thinking is central to understanding behavior
behaviorism school of psychology that focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking largely at observable behavior
cognitive neuroscience relatively new field of psychology that examines brain functioning and thinking
psychoanalysis school of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud, that focuses on internal psychological processes of which we are unaware
evolutionary psychology discipline that applies Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior
basic research research examining how the mind works
applied research research examining how we can use basic research to solve real-world problems
interconnectivity known as connectedness, belief that people can connect to their environment and other people
parsimony the simplest explanation of an event or observation is the preferred explanation - suggests that all things are equal - ties into Occam's Razor and is also known as logical simplicity
correlate a relationship between two variables
replicate the repetition of a research study
empiricism the only source of knowledge comes through our senses - founded by john locke
metaphysical a type of philosophy or study that uses broad concepts to help define reality and our understanding
attribution bias negative interpretations of people's behaviors
reciprocal determinism a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment
impingement perception, impact or contact with a sensory receptor
Created by: kaitlynkolla
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