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Neuro Exam 6

Ch. 12 & 13

Parts of the Limbic System Hippocampus/Parahippocampus Fornix Hypothalamus with Mammilary Bodies Thalamus Cingulate Gyrus Amygdala Olfactory tract (olfactory bulbs, insula)
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Analytical thought Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Detail Oriented Perception Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Ordered Sequencing Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Rational Thought Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Verbal Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Cautious Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Planning Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Math/Science Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Logic Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Right Field Vision Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Right Side Motor Skills Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Intuitive Thought Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Holistic Perception Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Random Sequencing Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Emotional Thought Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Non-Verbal Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Adventurous Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Impulse Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Creative Writing/Art Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Imagination Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Left Field Vision Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Left Side Motor Skills Right
Anomia is: difficulting naming and finding words at the most basic level
Aphasia is: Acquired communication disorder Affects comprehension, expression, or both Reading and writing often disrupted Most commonly due to CVA Different from Primary Progressive Aphasia
Broca's Hypothesis Gyri are constant across everyone Gyri contain higher functions Named for 3rd frontal gyrus Language is lateralized on the left
Wernicke's Hypothesis Due to patient with fluent paraphasic speech and poor comprehension Patient had lesion in superior temporal gyrus Damage to sound pattern of words
Geschwind's Addition Words have meaning due to association of sounds and sensory properties in the inferior parietal lobe
Broca's area: definition Left Posterior Inferior Frontal Gyrus Analytic for speech sounds, organization for speech production
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Grammatical Processing Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Local processing Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Decoding of Patterns Left
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Global Processing Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Complex Grammar Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Facial Expressions, body language Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Emotional Prosody (non-verbal cues that go along with language) Right
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Integration Across Different Modalities Right
Arcute fasciculus Connects Wernicke's to Broca's
Angular gyrus Written words into language Ex: Dyslexia/Dysgraphia
Wernicke's Area Sounds into language
Primary Auditory Context /Visual Context Input of written, signed, or spoken words, input of pragmatics
Brain Lateralization - Which side (L/R)? Arousal/Alterness/Attention Right
Right Hemisphere Deficits Lack of attention, alterness, initiation Cannot decode speaker's emotional state Cannot integrate face, voice, body, and words
Supermarginal Gyrus Integration of writing (output)
Primary Motor Area Motor for output, Activates areas for speech, voice, sign
Corpus Callosum Interhemispheric communicaton across both areas BIGGEST commisure
Subcortical Areas Thalamus, striatum, etc. Regulated, gated feedback loop
What do the striatum and basal ganglia do? They are involved in the motor feedback loop to produce a smooth motor movement for language output
Clues to Language Processing: Phonetic Priming Rhythmic pattern to associated words with eachother Ex: Silk 10 times then Milk
Clues to Language Processing: Semantic Priming Organizational association for language in the brain Ex: Association of milk with the image of a cow
Clues to Language Processing: What are the 4 Category-Specific Language Subdivisions in the Brain? Animate vs Inanimate ( Imageable words (i.e., Dog vs Freedom) Dual-coding theory (i.e., two pieces of info to encode more strongly language concepts) Category Specific Deficits in Aphasia (i.e., Living vs Non-living Categories)
Clues to Language Processing: Meaningful Context Sounds vs. Words Isolated Words vs Sentences
Broca's Aphasia Effortful telegraphic agrammatical speech Poorly articulated Content words preserved, function words impaired
Werenickes Aphasia Cannot process language input Cannot monitor own language output
What are the 6 Executive Functions of the Brain? Planning Working Memory Impulse Control Response Inhibition Socialization Behavior Sensory Integration Cause/Effect
What are the 3 deciding factors of Aphasia? Fluency Comprehension Repitition
Cause(s) and Impairments of Global Aphasia Impaired Fluency Impaired Comprehension Impaired Repitition Due to a lesion in the MCA
Cause(s) and Impairments of Broca's Aphasia Impaired Fluency Impaired Repetition Preserved Comprehension Damage to Broca's area
Cause(s) and Impairments of Transcortical Motor Aphasia Impaired Fluency Preserved Comprehension Preserved Repetition Areas around Broca's area
Cause(s) and Impairments of Wernicke's Aphasia Preserved Fluency Impaired Comprehension Impaired Repetition Damage to Wernicke's Area
Cause(s) and Impairments of Transcortical Sensory Aphasia Preserved Fluency Impaired Comprehension Preserved Reptition Damaged area around Wernicke's area
Cause(s) and Impairments of Conduction Aphasia Preserved Fluency Preserved Comprehension Impaired Repetition Damage to the Arcuate Fasciculus
Cause(s) and Impairments of Anomia Preserved Fluency Preserved Comprehension Preserved Repetition Most basic level of Aphasia
4 Factors in Outcomes for Aphasia Location of lesion Severity of lesion Cause of lesion Intensity of Speech/Language Therapy
6 Attributes of Dorsolateral Pre-Frontal Cortex (DLPFC) Motor Planning (The HIGHEST level) Organization of memory Response Inhibition Problem Solving Online Processing (integration of different info from all modalities) Working Memory Ex: Lampshade on head for no reason
What does damage to the DLPFC look like/ Problems with planning Shifting attention Decision Making Dopamine Response Perseveration Dopamine (Depression)
What is the Orbito-Frontal Pre-Frontal Cortex (OFPFC) /Ventromedial Pre-Frontal Coretx (VMPFC) for? Decision Making Emotional Regulation (reactions) Reward and punishment (consequences) Expectations (What happens next?) Psyiological Information for good/bad decisions (card game) Integration of social knowledge and emotional expression
Frontal Lobotomy Severs the connections between the PFC and emotion processing centers (deep nuclei, thalamus, and limbic system) Reason: to obtain apathy
What does damage to the OFPFC/VMPFC look like? Verbal & Sexual Disinhibition Poor decision making (personal and social) Emotional Flatness Perseveration of "punishing behavior" (i.e., gambling, drug additon, etc.)
Characteristic of Anterior Cingulate Cortex? Highly integrated Regulation of autonomic function in physiological response Reward/Punishment Emotion Regulation Integration of pain and behavior (Somatosensory pain response) Error detection/Conflict Resolution
Damage to the Anterior Cingulate Cortex looks like? Apathy Lack of awareness of problems Ex: makes your heart beat faster when you just said something really embarassing.
2 Main Purposes of the Limbic System? Self preservation (fight or flight) - takes memories and experiences and makes sense of them so we can react for self preservation. Species preservation (procreation/sex drive)
Limbic System: Amygdala Emotion processing (fear) Directions attention to emotional stimuli w/o awareness Mostly negative emotions/depresssion Modulated by the Anterior Cingulate *Located on the anterior tip of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle
Limbic System: Hippocampus Learning & Memory Medial wall of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle
Limbic System: Hpyothalamus Homeostatis
Limibic System: Olfaction Connects the hippocampus to amygdala
Limibic System: Mammillary bodies Relay station with the thalamus (sensory)
Limbic System: Fornix Connects the hippocampus with the hypothalamus
Limibc System: Cingulate gryrus emotion, conflict resolution
How do Executive Function and the Limbic System work together/ By using Executive function of the PFC to supress some of the reactions by the limbic system, primal impulses that woud have been acted upon are reasoned in the brain first
What are the 6 basic emotions? Fear Disgust Sadness Happiness Surprise Anger
What are emotions most strongly controlled by? The subcortical region (Limbic System)
What are emotions mediated by? Frontal lobes/cortices and cingulate gyrus
What are 4 complex emotions? Jealousy Approval Embarassment Schadenfreude
What do complex emotions require? Extensive cognitive "coloring" Interpretation of complex social context
Damasio's Hypothesis VFPFC damage results in inability to use emotion for decision making (prior experience) No "gut reactions" possible so must rely on logic which is too slow and not always accurate
What is needed for making appropriate decisions? A connection between the pre-frontal cortices and emotional processing (limbic system)
What are the 3 components of Pragmatics? Language in social use Narrative competence Non-verbal aspects of langauge
Pragmatics: What are the 3 types of ways language is used socially? Communicating intent (requesting, informing, demanding) Code switching (motherese) Social conversation rules (turn taking, conversation repair, nonverbal communication)
Pragmatics: What is Narrative competence? Langauge use beyond sentences (semantics, syntax, etc)
Pragmatics: What are two non-verbal aspects of language? Facial expressions Prosody
What are two types of facial processing? Inversion effect Whole-part processing
What is the Fusiform Face Area (FFA)? Specialized area downstream from the "what" pathway Modulates with attention and accuracy *Uses association processing to apply familiar objects and patterns
What are the 5 classifications of Facial Expressions of Emotion (FEE) based on? Universality (6 emotions) Valence (pos/neg) Duration (how long can it be sustained?) Explicit vs Implicit (i.e., awareness vs micro-expressions) External vs Internal genration
What 4 areas are involved in Facial Emotion Processing? VMPFC Amygdala Cingulate Gyrus Right Somatosensory cortex (with Insula)
What is the Somatosensory cortex? Located on the homunculus, it's for processing sensory info from your face and other peoples faces
What is the facial mimicry instrument used to show micro movements from faces? Electromyography
What is Prosody? Rhythm and melody of speech that uses pitch, volume, and durations of cues
What are the 3 functions of prosody? Affective (change in tone/pitch) Grammatical Stress
How does Affective Prosody present in damage to the L and R hemispheres of the brain? Left: aphasia - appropriate use of pitch Right: perisylvian - significant difficulty with comprehension and production of emotions
How does Lexical Stress present in damage to the L and R hemispheres of the brain? Left: aphaia - decreased comprehension/production, reduced timing Right: perisylvian - Normal comprehension and production, timing good
What are the 3 types of Stress Prosody? Lexical (Hot Dog, HOT dog) Emphatic (the elephant sits, the cow stands) Chuncking (chocolate ice cream and honey0
Created by: flowerfox82
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