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Anatomy Stack 2

Chapter Reviews

QuestionAnswer
Synapse Chemical signals diffuse between neurons at this location.
Information is carried from the somatic nervous system to the Skeletal muscles.
The anatomy and physiology center of the nervous system is called Central Nervous System.
What is the most abundant category of glial cells in the central nervous system Dendrites.
Tracts Are bundles of nerve fibers within the central nervous system.
Schwann Cell The little sausage links of the central nervous system.
Neurilemma are structures within the Schwann Cell essential for normal nerve ___ and the ___ of injured nerve ____. growth, regeneration, fibers
What structure has very limited capacity to repair themselves? Neurons
Dendrites are regions within the neuron that direct ____ ____ toward the cell body. electrical currents
Neurons are excitable cells that conduct the impulses.
Schwann Cells are located in the Peripheral nervous system and are considered glia cells
Axon is the longest ____ projection from a neuron. cytoplasmic
Where in the presynaptic neuron does the dendrite of a postsynaptic neuron associate? Axon Terminal
The three structural classification of neurons 1. Bipolar 2. Unipolar 3. Multipolar
The synapse is the site of ____ between neurons. communication
White Matter of the Nervous System are Bundles of myelinated fiber
The reflex arc is a signal conduction route to and from the ___ Nervous System. Central
What nervous system is a complex network of nerve pathways embedded in the small intestinal wall with a network of integrators and feedback loops. Enteric Nervous System
The axon of a neuron is a single process that usually extends from a tapered portion of the cell body.
The ___ pathways of the ____ nervous system can be divided into the ___ ___ ____ divisions. Efferent; Autonomic; Parasympathetic and Sympathetic
Cranial Nerves originate from the brain.
Blood-brain barrier are formed by glia cells called astrocytes
Perineurium are layers of connective tissue that hold ____ together. fascicles
What pathways of the autonomic nervous system carries feedback information to integrating centers in the brain? afferent
Astrocytes attach themselves to Neurons and Blood Vessels
Oligodendrocytes have similar function as Schwann cells in the PNS
The Somatic Nervous System transmits _____ from the CNS to the skeletal muscles. impulses
Multipolar Neuron has only one ___ but several ____. axon; dendrites
The functions of the Nervous System is to Detect and evaluate changes in the external and internal environment.
Most unipolar neurons are usually sensory neurons
Astrocytes are the largest and most numerous types of Neuroglia
Sensory Nerves contain mostly what type of fibers? Afferent Fibers
The blood-brain barrier permits what compound from crossing its barrier? Dopamine
Autonomic Nervous System stimulates Smooth Muscles Glands Cardiac Muscles
Myelinated fibers are the white matter of the nervous system.
Cell bodies are the main content of the __ __ in the brain and spinal cord. Gray Matter
What neuron transmits nerve impulses toward the CNS? Sensory Neuron
What structures conduct impulses toward the cell body? Dendrites
Endoneurium is __ __ ___ layer of a nerve. deepest connective tissue
For the longest time, scientists concluded that glia far outnumbered neurons, but recent research has shown that there is almost an equal number of glia cells to neurons.
List the correct pathway for impulse conduction along a neuron. Dendrite Cell body Axon
The divisions of the Nervous System are divided According to structure According to direction of information flow By control of effectors
The nuclei is the small distinct region of gray matter in the CNS
Central Nervous System neurons have less chance of regenerating because there is no neurolemma in the cells of the CNS astrocytes fill in the path of regrowth
Regeneration of nerve fibers occur only when cell bodies are intact and fibers have neurilemma
The following are function of the CNS, True or False? 1. Integrating sensory information 2. Evaluating the information 3. Initiating an outgoing response FALSE
The Myelin Sheath Is associated with white fibers in the brain Is important for nerve impulse conduction Is destroyed in those with multiple sclerosis
You can find interneurons in the ___ nervous system only. central
The reflex arc always consists of an afferent neuron and an efferent neuron, True or False? True
Cauda Equina is the lower end of the ___ ___, often giving the appearance of a horse tail. spinal cord
Meninges are the inner protective covering of the brain
Trace the axon with the sympathetic chain ganglion, along which pathway do preganglionic fibers branch along? 1.Synapses with a sympathetic postganglionic neuron 2.Ascending or descending branches through the sympathetic trunk to synapse with postganglionic neurons in other chain ganglia 3. Passes through one or more ganglia without synapsing
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions are the two efferent divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
Dendrites and cell bodies of the sympathetic preganglionic neuron are located in the gray matter of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord.
Plexuses are complex networks that ventral rami of most spinal nerves subdivide and form.
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves that are connected to the spinal cord, True or False? True
Autonomic nervous system is a subdivision of the nervous system that regulates involuntary effectors
List the three division of the brainstem Medulla Oblongata Midbrain Pons
The dorsal ganglion is a swelling in each spinal nerve, True or False? True
Ventricles are large fluid-filled spaces within the brain.
Descending tracts conduct sensory impulses down the cord from the brain .
Spinal cord tracts provide conduction paths to and from the brain
Brachia plexus innervate the lower part of the shoulder and the entire arm by individual nerves
Choroid plexus formation of the cerebrospinal fluid
The enteric nervous system is made up of a complex network of nerve plexuses that control the visceral effectors in the intestinal wall
__ __ cell bodies are located in nuclei of the brainstem and the lateral gray columns of the sacral cord. Parasympathetic neuron
List the type of plexus of the spinal nerves 1. Cervical 2. Brachial 3. Lumbar
The reticular activating system plays a part in arousing or alerting the cerebrum.
Damage to some of the preganglionic fibers that enter the celiac ganglion, what effect would this have on sympathetic stimulation? Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla may no reach the various sympathetic effectors.
You can find cerebrospinal fluid in all 1. subarachnoid space 2. central canal 3. third ventricle
Cranial nerves have a functional classification of motor 1. Oculomotor 2. Trochlear 3. Accessory
There are 6 major divisions of the brain
List three characteristics of the sympathetic postganglionic neurons 1. They are usually longer than preganglionic neurons 2. They produce norepinephrine 3. They have acetylcholine receptors on their dendrites
The accessory cranial nerve arises from the spinal cord
Spinal nerves are what type of fibers? Motor and Sensory
Numbness in the buttocks and posterior surface of the thigh and leg, is an indication of spinal nerve or peripheral branch coccygeal plexus.
Some ___ postganglionic neurons have their cell bodies in nuclei in the ___. parasympathetic; brainstem
Hypoglossal Cranial nerves responsible for the movement of the tongue.
List 3 sensory cranial nerves 1. Olfactory 2. Optic 3. Vestibulocochlear
List characteristics of the lateral corticospinal tract fibers 1. Most decussate 2. They are referred to as pyramidal pathways 3. They originate in the cerebral cortex
The pyramids are formed in the medulla.
The limbic system of the cerebrum is responsible for what emotions? Anger, fear and sorrow
Three parts of the brainstem pons, medulla, and midbrain
The dura mater is the layer of the meninges that serves the __ __ of the cranial bone. inner periosteum
Where is the phrenic nerve found? Cervical Plexus
Sensory neurons can operate in ___ reflex arcs. autonomic
What percentage of the population relays on the left cerebral hemisphere? About 90% of the population
The physiological changes of "Flight or Fight" are 1. increased conversion of glycogen into glucose 2. increased sweating 3. dilation of blood vessels in skeletal muscles
The tenth cranial nerve is also called vagus nerve
Conduction to autonomic effectors requires only one efferent neuron. False
The cervical plexus 1. Is found deep in the neck 2. Is formed by the ventral rami of the first four cervical nerves and part of C5 3. Includes the phrenic nerve
The lumber ___ gives rise to the __ nerve. lumbar; femoral
The peripheral nervous system includes what nerves and their branches? cranial and spinal
The medulla has several ___ centers. vital
The central nervous system contents all cell bodies of the autonomic nervous system False
The autonomic nervous system includes only efferent neurons False
Axon terminals that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergic terminals
The brachial plexus contains nerves that __ the lower part of the __ and the entire arm. innervate; shoulder
The pineal gland releases a hormone called melatonin
The brain and spinal cord are the ___ division of the __ nervous system. main; central
Increase peristalsis in the digestive tract occurs when stimulation of the ___ fibers. parasympathetic
Pia mater is the innermost layer of the ____. meninges
Beta receptors: bind norepinephrine
Visceral ___ are innervated by ___ fibers. effectors; sympathetic
The brain has how many ventricles? Four
Characteristics of sympathetic preganglionic neurons 1. they secrete acetylcholine 2. dendrites and cell bodies are found in the lateral gray columns of thoracic and the first four lumbar segments of the spinal cord
The cervical vertebral column contains one more pair of ___ than vertebrae. nerves
The spinothalamic tract contains ___ nerve fibers. sensory
There are 31 spinal nerves connected to the spinal cord. True
Effectors that have single innervation by the autonomic nervous system are innervated only by the parasympathetic division. False
The fovea centrails has the highest concentration of cones. True
The stria vascularis produce endolymph. True
The facial nerve carries ___ information from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. taste
The thymus gland of the thorax is important in the immune function. True
The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex secretes DHEA.
The vitreous humor is a __ __ the posterior segment of the eye. fluid filling
Calcitonin A hormone that inhibits osteoclast activity in children.
Glucocorticoids A class of hormones secreted during chronic stress that depress immune function.
The oval window is attached to the ___. stapes
Where is the hypophyseal portal veins primarily located? Infundibulum
Adrenal gland A pyramid-shaped gland consisting of neural crest-derived cells and endocrine secretory cells.
Thyroid gland The largest purely endocrine gland in the body
The hormone produced by the heart increases the excretion of sodium in the urine. True
Iodine A mineral essential for the formation of thyroid hormone.
The adenohypophysis is the region of the ___ that contains secretory endocrine cells derived from the ___ ectoderm. hypophysis; oral
Infundibulum The anatomical stalk of the pituitary
The flow of taste sensation along the gustatory pathway to the cerebral cortex. Vagus nerve, solitary nucleus of the medulla oblongata, and thalamic nuclei.
Description of the spiral organ of Corti 1. The hairs of the receptor cells are embedded in the tectorial membrane 2. High-frequency sounds stimulate hair cells at the basal end of the basilar membrane 3. The spiral organ is part of the cochlear duct, which equals the scala media.
The thyroid and parathyroid are endocrine glands that develop primarily from the ___ of the pharynx. endoderm
Thyroid An endocrine gland that stores enough of its hormone extracellularly to last several months.
Gustatory cells are located 1. on the posterior wall of the pharynx 2. on the fungiform papillae of the anterior tongue 3. on the inner surface of the cheeks
The __ membrane supports the spiral __. basilar; organ.
The cornea is a transparent structure of the eye containing regularly aligned collagen fibers. True
Conjunctiva A transparent mucous membrane covering the inner surface of the eyelid.
The vestibule is a bony labyrinth structure containing the utricle and ___. saccule
The receptors for hearing are located in the cochlear duct. True
Choroid Melanin-containing layer of the eye's vascular tunic.
Tectorial membrane Gel-like structure embedded with the tips of cochlear hair cells.
Beta cells are pancreatic cell that produce insulin.
Cochlear duct endolymph-filled structure containing receptors for hearing.
Starling's law of the heart States that, within limits, the longer, or more stretched, the heart fibers are at the beginning of the contraction, the stronger the contraction.
Inotropic factors factors that affect the strength of myocardial contraction
Cardiac output is determined by stroke volume and heart rate. True
Hemodynamics The collection of mechanisms that influence the circulation of blood.
___ of sympathetic vasoconstrictor ___ is considered a major mechanism of vasodilation. Inhibition; impulses
___ ___ stems mainly from the red blood cells but also partly from the protein molecules present in ___. Blood viscosity; blood.
Aortic baroreceptors and carotid baroreceptors are located near the ___. heart
Pulse pressure The difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure
Pericardium The heart's special covering, a loose-fitting inextensible sac.
ECG A graphic record of the heart's electrical activity.
The systemic circulation is the flow of ___ from the heart through blood vessels to all parts of the ___ and back to the heart. blood; body
Coronary arteries are vessels that myocardial cells receive blood from. True
The heart receives fibers from the sympathetic and parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
List three granulocytes 1. neutrophils 2. eosinophils 3. basophils
The head and upper extremities are supplied with blood from the left subclavian artery.
Precapillary sphincters function as regulatory valves that reduce the flow of blood through a network of capillaries when they contract and constrict the arterioles.
Hemoglobin A molecule that makes up 95% of the dry weight of each red blood cell and is responsible for the red pigment.
Elements found in blood 1. Red blood cell 2. White blood cell 3. Platelet
Platelets play an important role in blood clotting
The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the pelvis. True
Endothelium Type of membranous tissue that lines the heart and blood vessels.
Blood is drained from the head, neck, and upper extremity by the ___ veins. brachiocephalic
Oxygenate blood is returned from the placenta via the umbilical vein and flows into the __ __ __. inferior vena cava
Tunica intima Layer of the larger blood vessels is made up of endothelium.
SA node The normal cardiac impulse that initiates mechanical contraction of the heart.
Blood is drained from the kidney by ___ veins. renal
SA node, AV node, AV bundle, and Purkinje fibers are the four structures that compose the conduction system of the ___. heart
Leukopenia A decrease in the amount of white blood cells.
The foramen ovale is the opening in the septum, between the right and left aria, and directs most of the blood so that it bypasses the fetal lung during __ ___. fetal circulation
Elastic arteries, also known as ___ ___ and include the aorta. conducting arteries
Diapedesis A process where neutrophils are highly mobile and phagocytic. They migrate out of blood vessels and into tissue spaces.
Hematopoietic stem cells Erythrocytes that begin their maturation sequence in red bone marrow from nucleated cells.
Antigen Blood type refers to the type of blood cell.
Great saphenous vein drains much of the superficial leg and foot. True
Adventitia The outermost layer of the larger blood vessels is the tunica.
ECG is composed of P Wave QRS Complex T Wave
Blood moves from veins to other veins or arteries to other arteries without passing through an intervening capillary network during vascular anastomoses
Erythropoietin A glycoprotein hormone that is secreted to increase oxygen concentration in the tissues.
Natural Killer Cells Lymphocytes that kill many types of tumor cells and cells infected by different kinds of viruses.
Chemotaxis The process by which a cell navigates toward the source of the chemotactic factor by way of detecting and then moving toward higher concentrations of the factor.
Pre-T cells develop into thymocytes cells that proliferate as rapidly as any in the body in the __. thymus
Immunoglobulin M An antibody synthesized by immature B cells and then inserted into their plasma membranes.
Tonsils Masses of lymphoid tissue located in a protective ring under the mucous membranes in the mouth and the back of the throat.
Lymphokinetic activities Result in central movement or flow of lymph.
Molecules formed by the reactions of the complement cascade assemble themselves on the enemy cell's surface, which results in cytolysis. True
Recognition of antigens by antibodies occurs when an antigen's epitopes fit into and bind to an antibody molecule's antigen-binding sites. True
Lacteals Lymphatics in the villi of the small intestines.
Lymphotoxin A powerful poison that acts directly on any cell and quickly kills it.
Lymph nodes Bean-shaped structures located at certain intervals along the lymphatic system.
Pyrogen molecules trigger the fever response by promoting the production of prostaglandins. True
Each cortical nodule is composed of packed lymphocytes that surround a less dense area called a germinal center. True
Skin is referred to as the first line of defense and protects the internal environment of the human body.
Species resistance A phenomenon in which the genetic characteristics common to a particular kind of organism provide defense against certain pathogens.
The presentation of an antigen by an antigen-presenting cell activates the T cell. The cell then divides repeatedly to form a clone of identical sensitized T cells that form effector T cells and memory cells. True
Interferon A protein that interferes with the ability of viruses to cause disease.
Thymus The primary organ of the lymphatic system.
Because T Cells attack pathogens more directly, T-Cell immune mechanisms are classified as cell-mediated immunity. True
Defense and hematopoiesis are functions of the __ __. lymph nodes
Substances that operate immune mechanisms 1. Sebum 2. Mucus 3. Enzymes 4. Hydrochloric acid in gastric muscosa
Two major categories of immune mechanisms are innate and adaptive immunity are the body's defense mechanism. True
Lymphocyte Two different classes of a type of white blood cell orchestrates adaptive immunity, part of the body's third line of defense.
Fluid balance and immunity are the two most important functions of the lymphatic system.
Spleen An organ that has several functions, including defense, hematopoiesis, red blood cell and platelet destruction and blood reservoir.
Lymphoma A tumor of the lymphoid tissue.
Clonal selection theory Postulates that when an antigen enters the body, it selects the clone whose cells are committed to synthesizing its specific antibody and stimulates these cells to proliferate and to thereby produce more antibodies.
Immunoglobulins Family of antibodies proteins.
DIapedesis The movement of phagocytes from blood vessels to an inflammation site.
Phagocytosis The ingestion and destruction of microorganisms or other small particles.
The costal surface of each __ lies against the ribs and is rounded to match the contours of the __ cavity. lung; thoracic
The thorax becomes __ when the chest is raised during respiration. larger
The surface of the respiratory membrane inside each alveolus is coated with a fluid containing surfactant. True
The lower respiratory tract contains the trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs. True
List the order in which movement of air travels through the nose into the pharynx. Anterior nares, vestibule, meatus, and posterior nares.
Cribriform plate The roof of the nose is separated from the cranial cavity by a portion of the ethmoid bone.
Pneumonia An inflammation of the lower respiratory tract that involves the airways of the lungs.
The movement of mucus toward the pharynx by microscopic cilia
Paranasal sinuses The air-containing spaces that open, or drain, into the nasal cavity.
Epiglottis A small leaf-shaped cartilage that projects upward behind the tongue and hyoid bone.
The alveoli exchanges gas only. True
Location of trachealis muscle superior to the lumen of trachea
The vibrissae function as filters. True
The primary bronchi divides the trachea into two at its lower end. True
Larynx An organ that consist largely of cartilages that are attached to one another and to surrounding structures by muscles or fibrous and elastic tissue components.
Acute bronchitis A common condition characterized by acute inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree.
The respiratory portion of the nasal passage is lined with a mucous membrane made up of pseudostratified columnar epithelium. True
The external openings of the nasal cavities are referred to as Nostrils, Anterior nares External nares
Oropharynx The anatomical division of the pharynx that is located behind the mouth from the soft plate above the level of the hyoid bone.
Surfactant A function that prevents each alveolus from collapsing as air moves in and out during respiration.
The trachea or windpipe is approximately __ cm. 11
The cricoid cartilage forms the lower border of the cavity of the ___. larynx
The function of the vibrissae in the vestibule is to provide an initial "filter" to screen particulate matter from air that is entering the system. True
The septum is a ___ ___ that separates the hollow nasal cavity. midline partition
Another name for "Adam's apple" Thyroid cartilage
The fauces, one of the seven openings found in the pharynx, opens into the oropharynx. True
Epiglottis Small leaf-shaped cartilage behind the tongue and hyoid bone.
The main and vital function of the lungs' alveoli is gas exchange.
The horizontal fissure separates the superior and middle lobes of the __ __. right lung
Posterior nares, trachea, and primary bronchi are all lined with ciliated mucous membrane. True
Maxillary the largest of the paranasal sinuses.
The alveolus distributes air. False
List organs that distribute air 1. Trachea 2. Bronchus 3. Nose
The middle ear and nasopharynx are connected by the __ __. eustachian tube
Conchea deflect air as it passes through the nose.
The cribriform plate separates the __ and __ cavities. nasal; cranial
Function of the respiratory sytem Assists with homeostasis of body pH Filters air Warms air
Air normally fills the paranasal sinuses. True
The function of the pharynx Aids in forming vowel sounds Provides pathway for food Provides pathway for air
The superior turbinate is covered by the __ epithelium. olfactory
Bronchioles The smallest branches of the bronchial tree
The small openings in the cribriform plate function to allow branches of the olfactory nerve to enter the cranial cavity and reach the brain. True
The upper respiratory tract includes Larynx Oropharynx Nasopharynx
The correct sequence of which air flows through the nose into the pharynx. Anterior nares vestibule inferior, middle, and superior meatus posterior nares
When the diaphragm relaxes, it returns to a domelike shape, True
When the diaphragm contracts, it pulls the floor of the thoracic cavity downward. True
Changes in thorax size bring about inspiration and __. expiration.
Raising the ribs decreases the depth and width of the thorax. False
The intrinsic muscles of the larynx serve in voice production. True
The medical terminology for throat is pharynx
Villi Tiny projections within the intestinal lining circular folds.
List the four portions of the colon 1. Ascending colon 2. Transverse colon 3, Descending colon 4. Sigmoid colon
Anal canal The terminal inch of the rectum
Digestion The process of alternating the chemical and physical composition of food so that it can be absorbed and used by the body cells.
Ileum The longest division of the small intestine.
Pairs of salivary glands 1. Parotids 2. Submandibulars 3. Sublinguals.
The ileocecal ___ permits material to pass from the ileum into the __ intestine. valve; large
Enamel hardest substance in the body.
Duodenum The uppermost division of the small intestine.
Location of the neck of the tooth. Superior of the root and inferior of the crown.
Mucosa The innermost layer of the GI wall.
Intestinal crypts are deep depressions between villi valleys that serve as sites of rapid __ cell division. mitotic
Sublingual salivary glands produce only saliva. True
Papillae Rough elevated projections covering the dorsal surface of the tongue.
The __ __ consists of portions of two maxillary bones and two palatine bones. hard palate
Teniae coli Longitudinal muscles within the large intestinal wall are grouped together into tape-like strips about a centimeter wide.
The large sections of the large intestine Cecum Colon Rectum
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